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168 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Judiciary Act of 1789
law established Supreme Court w/ Chief Justice and 5 associate justices;3 fed. circuit courts;13 fed. district courts
Alexander Hamilton
Secretary of Treasury;Federalist;favored natl. bank
group of dept. heads serve as President's chief advisors
national bank
bank chartered by fed. govt.;power to act on on govt. behalf on financial matters
member of political party supporting Jefferson's vision of strong state govt.
two-party system
political system dominated by two major parties
protective tariff
tax on imported goods intended to protect nation's business from foreign competition
excise tax
tax on production,sale or consumption of goods produced within a country
refusal to take part in a war between other nations
Edmond Genet
French diplomat-recruited Americans for war against England
Thomas Pinckney
his Treaty of 1795-Spain gave up claim east of Mississippi except FL;opens Mississippi & port of New Orleans to American traffic
Little Turtle
Native American Miami chieftain victorious until forced out-Mad Anthony Wayne defeats NA's at Battle of Fallen Timbers
John Jay
Jay's Treaty permits British to trade furs on Amer. side of Canadian border;Amer. ships still being seized in Caribbean by Britain not resolved
put interests of one's own region ahead of interests of nation
XYZ Affair
1779 incident -French officials required bribe from U.S. diplomats
Alien and Sedition Acts
4 laws enacted in 1798 to reduce the political power of recent immigrant to U.S.
state's refusal to recognize an act of Congress it considers unconstitutional
Aaron Burr
Jefferson's running mate-became VP-killed Hamilton in duel
Judiciary Act of 1801
increased # of federal judges by 16-Adams appoints Federalists
midnight judge
Adams signed their appointments on last day of his administration
John Marshall
Federalist Supreme Court Chief Justice appointed by Adams
Marbury v. Madison
1803 judicial review established;Supreme Court has power to abolish legislative acts as unconstitutional
Louisiana Purchase
1803 purchase by U.S. of France's territory-Mississippi River to Rocky Mtns for $15 million
Lewis & Clark
expedition that opened passage way West;strenthened U.S. claims to Oregon Territory and NW coast
NA woman;interpretor & guide to Lewis & Clark
use of ships or troops to prevent hostile nation from using ports or land
forcible seizure of men for military service
government ban on trade with 1 or more other nations
War hawk
a member of Congress who favors war w/Britain in early years of 19th century
William Henry Harrison
governor of Indiana territory;persuaded NA's to give up 3 million acres of land to U.S.;led victory at Battle of Tippecanoe
Shawnee chief; defeated at Battle of Tippecanoe by Harrison
Andrew Jackson
American general-defeated British at Battle of New Orleans;future President
Treaty of Ghent
1814 armistice to stop fighting of War of 1812
stopping of warfare by mutual agreement
12th amendment
After 1800 election ended in tie, presidential electors now vote for both a presidential and vice presidential candidate
District of Columbia
In exchange for southerners support of debt plan, the new national capital was built in South
Executive Branch
enforces and administers the laws
Depts. of Executive Branch
Cabinet-Secy. of Treasury;Secy.of War; Secy of State;Attorney Gen.;Postmaster General
Thomas Jefferson
Republican;favored states;not for national govt.
French Revolution
revolution to overthrow monarchy in France;Jacobin's extreme group
Gen. Josiah Harmer
defeated by Native Amer. for Ohio area
War of 1812
war between U.S. & Britain in 1812;confirmed Amer. Independence/strenghtened nationalism;British blockade Chesapeake and Delaware Bays
Treaty of Greenville
Miami Confederacy (NA's) give up most of Ohio for $10,000 annual-less than its worth
Rush-Bagot Agreement
limited # of war ships on Great Lakes
Oregon Territory
10 yr. joint occupation by British & U.S.
Eli Whitney
invented cotton gin
interchangeable parts
components of any device designed to specifications which insure that they will fit within any device of the same type
mass production
production of goods in large quantities
Cotton Kingdom
Louisiana, Mississippi & Alabama grow cotton on large plantations
Industrial Revolution
massive change social and economic -replaces hand tools with with machines for large scale production
American System
protective tariff. resurrect national bank. sponsor development of transportation systems and internal improvements
Henry Clay
supported American System and Missouri Compromise
2nd National Bank of U.S. (BUS)
chartered for 20 years-standardizes currency nationwide
Gibbons v. Odgen
gives federal govt. power to regulate commerce that crosses state lines
supported national government over state governments
John Marshall
Chief Justice of Supreme Court;guided decisions favoring increasing power of federal govt.
David Walker
freed slave who called for immediate freedom by force for slaves
Nat Turner
formed gang of slave who killed slave owners; hung;stricter codes for slaves
Frederick Douglas
wrote The North Star for non violent end to slavery
Charles Finney
2nd Great Awakening preacher-individual responsible for own salvation
William Lloyd Garrison
wrote The Liberator for immediate abolition
Dorothea Dix
prison reforms for mentally ill
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
equal rights for women;organized Seneca Falls Convention
Lucretia Mott
equal rights for women;organized Seneca Falls Convention
Cult of Domesticity
women's work had been restricted to home and family
Declaration of Sentiments
Women's declaration of independence
Lowell Mills
long hours, low pay for immigrants and women
Burned over districts
West New York-many revivalist preachings
2nd Great Awakening
individual is responsible for own salvation
African Americans in reform movement
for abolition and other rights
militant abolitionist
abolish slavery NOW - use violence
moderate abolitionist
abolish slavery gradually
problems of women's reform
women not welcome at men's conventions
Sojourner Truth
former slave for women's rights, abolition, prison reform, temperance
Market Expansion
buy and sell goods rather than make for self
Self sufficiency
supply all your own needs
raise one or two crops to sell at home or abroad
Vulcanized rubber
Elias Howe
Sewing Machine
I.M. Singer
foot treadle for sewing machine
Samuel Morse
eventually leads to westward movement
Steam engine
allows steamboats to return up the Mississippi River;lowering shipping costs to north
National road
opens travel westward from Maryland to Illinois
lowers cost to ship goods
manifest destiny
belief U.S. destiny is to expand to Pacific & into Mexican territory
John O'Sullivan
publishes in favor of Manifest Destiny in U.S. Magazine and Democratic Review
Reasons to move west
escape religious persecution, personal economic problems, land, new markets for goods
Fort Laramie Treaty
several Native American groups control central plains & receive govt. payments - promise not to attack settlers and allow forts and roads built
Mexicans living in Texas
sold real estate in Texas
Steve Austin
famous empresario;petition to Santa Anna for self-govt. for Texas denied
Sam Houston
Led battle of San Jacinto capturing Santa Anna;Pres. of Republic of Texas
Santa Anna
Mexican president-attacks Alamo,lost Mexican-American War
The Alamo
mission/fort;12 day seige led by Santa Anna
Texas annexation
took 8 yrs.;admitted as slave state
Treaty of Velasco
Texas gains independence for Mexico in exchange for freeing Santa Anna
Mexican-American War
dispute over Rio Grande River vs. Nueces River between Mexico and U.S.;U.S. wins with 3 prong attack;not all favored the war
President Polk
wanted Texas as slave state;wanted Calif. & Mexico
Gen. Herrera
refused to see John Slidell re: purchase of Calif. and New Mexico
Rio Grande
U.S. claimed as border to Mexico;Mexico claimed border was more north at Nueces River
Polk wanted for U.S.; Fremont & Kearny help attain it
New Mexico
Polk wanted for U.S.; Kearny seizes for U.S.
John Slidell
Gen. Herrera in Mexico refuses to meet re: purchase of Calif. & New Mexico
Zachary Taylor
leads U.S. troops at Rio Grande
assists in acquisition of Calif.
assists in acquisition of New Mexico and Calif.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Mexico agrees Rio Grande is border-cede Calif. & New Mexico-U.S. pays $15 million for Calif,NM,Utah,and some of Arizona,Colorado, Wyoming
Gadsen Purchase
U.S. pays Mexico $10 million for territory south of Gila River (to build railroad)
3 prong attack Mexican-American War
From North by Taylor;from west by Kearny;by Navy from Ocean/Gulf
Wilmot Proviso
Amendment to 1846 military appropriations bill, proposing no slaves in territory acquired in war with Mexico
Missouri Compromise
Series of laws enacted in 1820 to maintain balance of power between slave and free states
Free Soil Party
Political party formed in 1848 to oppose the extension of slavery into U.S. territories
Omnibus Bill
Packaging 5 bills together with Compromise of 1850 failed
Compromise of 1850
Series of congressional measures intended to settle the major disagreements
Stephen Douglas
Able to pass Compromise of 1850 in separate bills
Fugitive Slave Law
Part of Compromise of 1850, designed to ensure escaped slaves would be returned to owners
Kansas-Nebraska Act
1854 law giving residents of Kansas and Nebraska to decide on slavery
Fort Sumter
Charleston harbor - first shots of Civil War by Confederates
Anaconda Plan
3 part strategy by Union to attack Confedederacy-blockade/Mississippi to split/capture Richmond(capital)
Bull Run
Union retreated-war longer than thought
Stonewall Jackson
gave South first victory at Bull Run
George McClellan
weak general who could have finished off Lee at Antietem but didn't
Ulysses S. Grant
Strong military commander
Union attacked (surprise) -Grant regrouped and Confederates retreated
David G. Farragut
Admiral who helped secure the Mississippi River and cut South in half
Robert E. Lee
Confederate military commander
bloodiest battle, South retreated, McClellan didn't pursue Lee to end war earlier
Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln's executive order freeing slaves in rebellious regions of South
habeus corpus
court order requiring authorities to bring prisoner before court to determine if prisoner is held legally
Northern Democrats for peace with South
military draft to supplement army volunteers
North offered volunteers payment to serve in army
Fort Pillow
massacre by Confederates of 200+ mostly African American prisoners
income tax
tax to pay for war taken from individuals earnings
Horrific Confederate run prison
Clara Barton
'angel of battlefield' nurse for Union
Turning point battle in PA won by Union's Meade
South victory for Lee in VA
Grant won this campaign to secure top of Mississippi River
Gettysburg Address
Lincoln's speech recognizing U.S. as a single nation
William T. Sherman
marched through Georgia to sea destroying everything in his path
Court house in VA where Lee surrendered to Grant in 1865
North's ironclad ship - battle with South's ship Merrimack ended in a draw
South's ironclad ship
13th Amendment
ends slavery
John WIlkes Booth
Southern sympathizer assassinated Lincoln
Andrew Johnson
to be readmitted Southern states must swear allegiance to Union, ratify 13th Amendmt., declare secession illegal
U.S. rebuilds South after Civil War
Radical Republicans
proposed laws to grant rights to African Americans after Civil War
Thaddeus Stevens
leader of Radical Republicans aimed to destroy political power of former slave holders
Wade-Davis Bill
proposed for state to be formed during Reconstruction a majority (not just 10%) make oath supporting Constitution
Freedman's Bureau
assisted former slaves and poor whites in South with food/clothing/education
black codes
discriminatory laws severly restricting African Americans after Civil War
14th Amendment
granted full citizenship to African Americans
15th Amendment
grants right to vote to African Americans
white Southerner who joined Republican Party after Civil War
Northerner who moved to South after Civil War-some assisted former slaves,some came for land,some to exploit
Hiram Revels
1st African American senator
landowners in South give farm workers land, seed, tools in exchange for part of crops raised
tenant farming
farm workers supply own tools and rent farmland for cash
Ku Klux Klan
secret organization of white supremists who used terrorist tactics against African Americans after Civil War
Panic of 1873
series of financial failures - triggered 5 year depression
Southern Democrats term for return to power in South in 1870's
Rutherford B. Hayes
won Presidential election of 1876-withdrew troops from South ending Reconstruction
Samuel Tilden
won popular vote for Pres. in 1876 -lost electoral vote to Rutherford B. Hayes
home rule
running state government without federal intervention