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46 Cards in this Set

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Central Place Theory
location theory that seeks to explain the size and distribution of spacing within human settlements. Illustrates how settlements locate in relation to one another, amount of market are a section can control, and why some sections function only as villages, hamlets, towns, or cities.
Urban Renewal
Federally funded tearing down and rebuilding of inner city areas. 1949 to 1973.
The ‘Gridiron’ pattern
A rectangular or square plan of streets in a subdivision.
New Urbanism
movement to promote cities and towns with planned growth that minimizes damage to the environment.Infill(vacant land put to use building walkable places, save energy) Urban Growth Boundaries (UGB.designed to contain a diverse range of housing, retail, jobs, and to be "walkable."
The ‘Walking City’
YORE-1 hour walking distance,. distributing decision-making to bring it closer to the point of service or action. population and industry moves from urban centers to outlying districts.
Urban revival & gentrification
The restoration and upgrading of deteriorated urban property by middle-class or affluent people, often resulting in displacement of lower-income people.
The Garden City
Letchworth, Eng. first of its type. A new town with special emphasis on landscaping and rural ambiance.
Division of a region into smaller regions that are often hostile or non-cooperative with each other
Social Capital
SOCIAL FRAMEWORK OF THE COMMUNITY, FAMILY-FRIENDS-NEIGHBORHOOD-WORK. efers to the collective value of all 'social networks' and the inclinations that arise from these networks to do things for each other. Networks of people you can rely on to solve problems. FAMILY-FRIENDS-NEIGHBORHOOD-WORK
The Levittown Model
New York. 1st massed produced housing model for suburbs. archetype for postwar suburbs throughout the country.
Spatial Mismatch
economic problem where employment opportunities for low-income people are located far away from the areas where low-income live
defined in part on some minimum size of population and density. industrial society stage of development. relating to or concerned with a city or densely populated area; 2500 or more.
have communities in outskirts of cities. Post industrialization of development.
urban community that is primarily residential, from which most of the workforce commute to a nearby metropolis to earn their livelihood. commuter town, difference with suburb is that no employment in exurbs.
farming community not urban. agrarian society of development.
process focused on the physical movement of people from rural to urban places.
Why we plan, types of planning, influences on planning, who planners are & the general processes of planning
We plan to guide our future, TYPES are-growth management(development), Infrastructure (trans, water, sewer, etc), Environmental protection (EPA), Economic (jobs), Social Issues (housing & Community), Design(site design & review). INFLUENCES= Citizens(me), Developers, and Planners. also politics $$$ PLANNERS help society turn development into cohesiveness while playing with a balanced gvt. regulations and individual property rights, all in the name of Compatibility.
Styles of planning(5)
1. Neutral Public Servant
2. Builder of Community consensus 3. Entrepreneur 4. Advocate 5. Agent of Radical Change.
Private and public planners’ roles
private-worked for developers tries to get land built. public- negotiates against developers for better gvt. accommodations.
Relationship of planning with POLITICS, LAND USE, SOCIAL and basic ECONOMIC issues
* Emotional Issues
* Visible Decisions
* Close at Hand
* Subject Familiarity
* Large Financial Decisions
* Property Taxes
social interaction,
HISTORY of U.S. planning
The history of planning in the United States is largely one of response to urbanization and the problems it has brought.

16-1700=colonial america(gridiron pattern like savannah-James Oglethorpe)1800s=pressure to reform had to deal with urban problems like health, water sewer, ugliness, etc.)mid 1800s=SANITARY REFORM.(WATER,DRAINAGE, SUNLIGHT ETC.)MID TO EARLY 1900S=URBAN OPEN SPACE, HOUSING REFORM, MUNICIPAL IMPROVEMENT, MUNICIPAL ART MOVEMENT, CITY BEATIFUL MOVEMENT, & BIRH OF MODERN PLANNING(TRANSPORTATION, PARKS,.1920S=ZONING.
Stages of US development (the evolution of development)
* Rural: agrarian society
* Pre 1800’s
* Urban: industrial society
* 1800’s – 1900’s
* Suburban: post-industrial…
* 1900’s - present
CHARACTERISTICS of US population growth and shifts


One birth every 08 seconds

One death every 13 seconds

One international migrant (net) every 27 seconds

Net gain of one person every 11 seconds
Impacts the Great Depression and WWII had on planning and development
slowed during 30s, picked up after WWII, planning evolved by federal funding, communities developed maps, database, and plans. States built up rural(preserve farmland) and urban states-housing programs begin, sewer, water pollution, recreation, public finance, governance urban planning began. Economy back up. ur
History of the interstate highway system; origins, acts and impacts
shelved during ww2 but resurface in 1956 with National Defense Highway Act. Mostly built in 60s and 70s. Most completed by the 80s. 40k miles in length.
Federal Housing Administration (FHA) and its significance
Post great-depression, started urban renewal inner city, eminent domain, housing act of 1949
Centralization & urbanization / decentralization & suburbanization
LARGE CITIES=HIGH DENSITIES=HEAVY CONGESTION. DECENTRALIZATION- Streetcar suburbs, incomes rise=more freedom, personal automobile 1890s. walking city of yore 1 hour walk/3miles.
Models of the urban form(3)
CONCENTRIC CIRCLES MODEL,SECTOR MODEL, AND MULTIPLE NUCLEI MODEL -1. Central Business District (CBD)2. Transition Zone (com., ind. & high-density res.)3. Medium-density Residential (1st tier suburbs)4. Medium to Low-density Res. (2nd tier suburbs)5. Low-density Res. & Ag.(exurbs)
Significant planning cities and places & why they are significant by more than 1 reason (include major events, plans, acts, court cases, etc.)
Chicago- white city, savannah, GA- 1st followed gridiron pattern of streets block on block. DC-Height restrictions. Kansas v. muegler-police power vs. eminent domain, Ayres v. City of L.A.-proper police power use. Penn v New york-Historic incident. Palazzo v. Rhode island-taking vs. police power he won because of time he purchase the land it was different. Kelo v. New London-eminent domain.
City Beautiful Movement, Municipal Improvement & Municipal Art Movement
Municipal ART- Archs, fountains, statues etc. stemmed from Europe. Art/architecture/fusion.
CITY BEATIFUL MOVEMENT-Municipal art-civic improvement-landscape. Chicago world's fair white city-fake city trying to improve world's view. controlled public spaces, buildings, municipal art, streets, etc.
Reasons for, attributes of and results (significance) of sanitary & housing reform
SANITARY-Septic and Cesspool, Drinking water, planning=reduced disease, sunlight/air circulation thus landscape architecture was born. STOCKBRIDGE, MASS- 1st. city used paved streets/sidewalks, plantings parks, and other public facilities. HOUSING REFORM-QUALITY OF URBAN POOR, NYC WAS 1ST, 1901 TENANT HOUSING ACT(VENTILATION AND LIGHT). Legislation for standard Codes, Permits for all cities.
Legal lines of planning and regulation
Constitutionality important US amendments and substates designation of power
Tenth Amendment: The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people . Police Powers-The right of the community to regulate the activities of private parties to protect the interests of the public-Health, Safety, public welfare. 5th Amendment: “nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation”
14th Amendment: no person shall be deprived of “life, liberty, or property without due process of law”
Police power / eminent domain / a ‘taking’ / a ‘nuisance’ / ‘rational nexus’
PP-right of the community to regulate the activities of private parties to protect the interests of the public HEALTH ,SAFETY, PUBLIC WELFARE.) ED-government has the right to take property for public purpose. TK-Requires just compensation,. NUS-House knowingly built in industrial area-Must accept that its a industrial are and live with the consequences. RATIONAL NEX- requires there be a logical connection to a cause and effect. nexus is Minimum level of physical presence that allows you to abide by the state's regulations.
Court cases covered (facts and significance)
Planning tools & how tools work together
Comprehensive Plan-Guidelines for land use plan, Public Capital Investments-Capital Improvements Plan, Land Use Controls-Land Development Code,
Conceptuality of the generic goals of a comprehensive plan (& how this relates to FLA)
Basic plan for the development of the community. 5 PLAN PROCESS- Research, Clarification of community goals & objectives: ‘Visioning’, Plan formulation, Plan implementation,Plan review. 8 GOALS- Health, Public Safety, Circulation (transportation), Services and Facilities (utilities), Fiscal Health, Economic, Environmental, and Redistribution. Florida’s required (& optional) “elements” HURRICAN. EVERY COUNTY MUST HAVE A PLAN.
Content of a Comp Plan (Vision, GOPs)
Public investments
PHYSICAL STRUCTURES- Roads, Bridges, Water & Sewer lines, big facilities(Universities, ports, stadiums, interstate exchanges) This dictates growth , land value, and use.
Capital Improvement Plan (CIP)
Annually updated plan or schedule of project expenditures for public facilities and infrastructure (buildings, roads, etc.), with estimated project costs, sources of funding, and timing of work over a five-year period.
Financing of projects
BUDGETS-USED FOR MAINTENANCE AND IMPROVEMENTS. Capital Improvements Plan(CIP)-5 year wish list, Bonds-loan, obligation, Revenue from turnpike and tolls.
Land Use Planning
Regulated shaper of the land
* Subdivision
* Zoning
* Various others
Subdivision regulations
Subdivision regulations control the manner in which blocks of land over a certain size may be converted into building lots. PLAT, PROP. LINES, STREETS,EASMENTS, RECORDED PLAT BOOK PG.
Zoning (regulation, criticisms, display & flexibility)
Limitations of Zoning-Economic
,Land value, Farming vs. housing, Legal, Political, Enforcement vs. change, Compromise. Zoning Flexible-
“Bonus” and “Incentive” zoning
,Density “bonus” schedule-Sidewalks, parks, lighting, trees, playgrounds…
Planned Unit Developments (PUD / PD, Development Agreements
,Development of Regional Impact (DRI)-Theses have their ‘own’ negotiated rules. FLEXIBLE- TDR(transfer and development rights), transfer, sell.Floor Area Ration (FAR)
,Impervious Surface Ration (ISR). ALSO CLUSTERING- Building houses in one section of 20 and use the rest for a park, field etc. Instead of dividing into 20 1-acre pieces. CRITICISMS- Jane Jacobs, Howard kunstler-believe that highway strips, parking lots, housing tracts, mega-malls, junked cities, and ravaged countryside that makes up the everyday environment where most Americans live and work [is]...a land full of places that are not worth caring about [and] will soon be a nation and a way of life that is not worth defending.

Euclidian Zoning (segregation zoning)
Future Land Use (FLU)
maps describe future land use of communities.
Other controls mentioned (Site, Arch and Historic)
Site Plan Review is divided into two areas: Residential and Commercial. Residential Plan Review encompasses one and two family dwellings, and Commercial Plan Review handles all of the rest.(developments discuss plans)Architectural review-REVIEWS STYLE OF HOUSES BUILT.(SOME CITIES HAVE STRICT STYLES SUCH AS MIA). Historic preservations- PRESERVE ITEMS SUCH AS REALLY OLD TREES THAT DEFINE HOW A CITY LOOKS. If someone built a house near a CANOPY TREE IN TALLY THEY CANNOT CUT THAT TREE DOWN.