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30 Cards in this Set

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What nerves ennervate the pelvic region?
S2-S4
Pudendal nerves
At what age should you begin screening for prostate cancer?
Age 40: African Americans and those with a family history

Age 50: All others
What are the indications for biopsy of the prostate?
PSA > 4
Abnormal DRE
Previous biopsy with atypical cells
What are the sites of prostate cancer metastasis?
Pelvic lymph nodes
Bone
Lung
Liver
A Gleason higher than this is considered high grade cancer
> 7
What are the different types of prostate cancer?
Adenocarcinoma 90%
Transitional cell carcinoma
Sarcoma
Neuroendocrine
What part of the prostate cancer most common?
Peripheral
what are some complications of prostectomy?
Impotence
Urinary incontence
Bladder Neck contracture
What are some complications of radiation therapy?
Prostatitis
Cystitis
Impotence
What is the MCC of microscopic hematuria?
BPH
How do you treat BPH medically?
Alpha Blockers
5-alpha-reductase inhibitors
What is the mechanism of action of alpha blockers?
They relax the prostate at the bladder neck
What are some side effects of alpha blockers?
Orthostatic hypotension
Asthenia- feeling weak and tired
Which germ cell tumor of the testes is the least malignant?
Seminoma
Common testicular tumor in 0-10 yr age group
Yolk sac tumor
Common testicular tumor in the 20-30 yr age group
Chriocarcinoma
Common testicular tumor in the 30-40 yr age group
Seminoma
Common testicular tumor in the >50 yr age group
Malignant lymphoma
What tumor markers are used in testicular cancer?
AFP
B-Hcg
LDH
What is the best chemo drug?
Cysplatin
Which tumor does not respond to chemotherapy?
Teratomas
Which chemo drug has pulmonary fibrosis as a side effect?
Bleomycin
What are some treatment options for mild prostate cancer?
Observation ( watchful waiting )
Radical Prostatectomy
External Beam Radiation
Brachytherapy
What are some treatment options for advance prostate cancer?
Hormonal Treatment:
LHRH-agonist
Antiandrogen (Flutamide, Casodex)
Estrogen
Bilateral Orchiectomy

Chemotherapy
What are some treatment options for metastasis of prostate cancer?
Radiation for Bone Mets
Chemo for Soft tissue Mets
What part of the prostate is BPH most common?
transitional zone
Name some a1-Blockers
Terazosin
Doxazosin
Tamsulosin
Alfuzosin
Nmae some 5a-reductase inhibitors
Finasteride
Dutasteride
When dealing with kidney stones, when would you refer a pt to a urologist?
If a ureteral stone is > 5 mm or a stone has not passed after two to four weeks.
How do you manage Vesicoureteral Reflux?
Antibiotics
Surgery - Ureteral Reimplantation