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286 Cards in this Set

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What are epithelial cells?
cells of a primary tissue that covers the body surface, lines its internal cavities, and forms glands
Epithelial cells come in how many forms?
three shapes
WHat are the bean shaped organs that produce urine and cleanse the blood?
Kidney
WHat are the tubular structures that connect the kidney to the urinary bladder?
Ureters
What is the bladder?
Muscular reservoir where urine collects
What is the urethra?
Structure that rids the body of urine
What is the endocrine gland that produces hormones and is made of two major regions?
ADrenal glad
WHat are the two regions of the adrenal glad?
adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla
_____ is made from the adrenal cortex
Aldosterone
What is the fatty tissue that partially surrounds and supports the kidney?
Adipose capsule
WHat is the major vein exiting the renal hilus?
Renal vein
What does the renal vein connect too?
inferior vena cava
WHat is the indented area that forms the entry adn exit point for blood vessels, nerves, and lymph vessels?
Renal hilus
What is the major vein in the abdomen that returns blood to the heart?
Inferior vena cava
What are the secondary branches from the renal artery that carry blood to one of the lobes of the kidney?
Lobar arteries
What are the arteries that diverge from the renal artery?
Segmental arteries
What does it mean when something is retroperitoneal?
It lies agains the dorsal body wall in the upper abdomen
What is the renal artery?
artery leading directly from the abdominal aorta into the kidney.
WHat is the abdominal aorta?
Portion of the large descending aorta that begins inferior to the muscular diaphragm and ends at the division into the common iliac arteries
What are the three distinct sections of the kidney?
Renal cortex, medulla, and pelvis
What is the funnel shaped expanded tube that lies within the renal sinus and is continuous with the ureter?
Renal pelvis
What is the outer layer of the kidney that contains many nephrons?
Renal cortex
What is the cone shaped tissue of the medulla region that is formed of parralel bundels of collecting ducts that carries the urine into the reanl pelvis?
Renal Pyramid
What are extensions of the renal cortex that penetrate between and separate the reanl pyramids of the medullary region?
renal columns
What is the middle layer of the kidney that contains the renal pyramids?
Renal medulla
Nephrons in the cortex are ___ nephrons
cortical
Nephrons in the cortex and medulla are just ______ nephrons
juxtamedullary
What are nephrons?
Structural and functional unit of kidney
What is the nephron made of?
glomerulus and renal tubule and associated blood vessels
What is capillary bed lying between the afferent and efferent arterioles?
Glomerulus
What is the Bowman's capsule?
Glomerulus
WHat is the renal blood vessel emerhing from the glomerulus?
efferent arteriole
What does the efferent arteriole feed into?
peritubular capillaries
What are the renal blood vessels coming from the interlobular artery and carrying blood into the glomeulus?
afferent arteriole
What arteriole is important in autoregulatory mechanisms?
afferent arteriole
What is the vein that drains the peritubular cappilaries and vasa recta?
Interlobular vein
WHat does the interlobular vein connect to?
arcuate vein
What is the artery that bracnches from the arcuate artery?
Interlobular artery
What branches to form the afferent arterioles?
Interlobular artery
The _____ artery and vein give rise to the interlobular vein
Arcuate
The _____ artery and vein are the ones that lay at the medulla cortex junction
arcuate
WHat is the vein that draws from the arcuate vein and connects to the lobar vein?
interlobar vein
What is the continuation of the cortical collecting ducts that extend through the medulla?
MEduallry collecting duct
What is the glomerus?
Capillary bed surrouned by the glomerular capsule
What is the filtration unit of the nephron called? Comprised of glomerus and glomerular capsule
Renal Corpuscle
What is another name for the visceral layer?
podocytes
What is the layer of the glomerular capsule that lies fixed to the basement membrane of the glomerulus?
Visceral layer
What is the layer of the glomerular capsule that is not in direct contact with the glomerus?
PArietal layer
What is the region withing the glomerular capsule?
Capsular space
What is the reanl blood vessel that branches from the interlobular artery?
afferent arteriole
What is the renal blood vessel that distributes blood into the peritubular capillaries?
Efferent Arteriole
What is the filtration membrane?
three layer barrier serving as a filter within the kidney
What is the filtration membrane made of?
Fenestrated endothelium, basement membrane, and filtration slits
What are filtration slits formed by?
Pedicels of the podocytes
What are the fenestration?
small holes or openings through an otherwise solid material
What is the extracellular layer of material jointly formed by and lyring between the epithelial cells and underlying connective tissue cells?
BAsement membrane
WHat are the specialized cells that form a visceral layer of the glomerular capsule?
Podocytes
What are the pedicels?
foot of the podocyte that participates in the formation of filtration membrane
What are filtration slits?
small spaces lying between individual pedicels of the filtration membrane
What is PCT solubility?
highly permeable to water but not solutes
What is the PCT?
proximal convoluted tubule
What are the cells of the PCT called?
brush border cells
Why do brush border cells have their name?
NUmerous microvilli, which project into the lumen of the tubule
What are the epithelial cells of the PCT that have extensive microvilli on their luminal surfaces
brush border cells
WHat is the lumen?
Space within a tubular structure in which fluid flows
WHat is the interstitial space?
Area between cells
What is the interstitial space also called?
interstitium
What is the entire, combined portion of the renal cell's plasma membrane that lies in contact with the interstitial space?
Basolateral membrane
What is the plasma membrane of a cell that lies exposed to the contents of the tubular lumen?
luminal membrane
What is PCT solubility?
highly permeable to water but not solutes
What is the PCT?
proximal convoluted tubule
What are the cells of the PCT called?
brush border cells
Why do brush border cells have their name?
NUmerous microvilli, which project into the lumen of the tubule
What are the epithelial cells of the PCT that have extensive microvilli on their luminal surfaces
brush border cells
WHat is the lumen?
Space within a tubular structure in which fluid flows
WHat is the interstitial space?
Area between cells
What is the interstitial space also called?
interstitium
What is the entire, combined portion of the renal cell's plasma membrane that lies in contact with the interstitial space?
Basolateral membrane
What is the plasma membrane of a cell that lies exposed to the contents of the tubular lumen?
luminal membrane
What is the cell to cell connection in which cells membranes of adjacent cells form a very close binding?
Tight junctions
What is the protoplasmic extensions of the plasma membrane that increase surface are of absorptive membranes?
microvilli
What are the cells of the thin descending loop of the Henle called?
simple squamous epithelial cells
Brush border cells are _____ cells
cuboidal
Within the basolateral membrane, what is held?
Mitochondrion
Loops of the descending henle are soluble how?
To water but not solutes
What are the loops of the ascending loop of the Henle and DCT?
Cuboidal cells
What are the cells important for secretion and absorption and the main cell type found in the renal tubules?
cuboidal cells
What are the cells with nearly equal dimensions of height, breadth, and depth?
Cuboidal cells
What is the group of specialized monitoring structures in the walls of the terminal portion of the ascending loop of the Henle and the afferent arteriole where they come in clsoe contact near the glomerulus?
Juxtaglomerular apparatus
What are specialzed cells of JGA that appear to be sensitive to contenst and rate of flow filtrate?
macula densa cells
What is the modified smooth muscle cells of the afferent arteriole that play in autoregulation and blood pressure regulation by releasing enzyme renin called?
Juxtaglomerular cells
What type of cells are found in the late DCT and cortical collecting duct?
cuboidal cells, principal and intercalated cells
What are the pricipal cells sensitive to?
hormones aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone
What are principal cells importance?
Balance of sodium and potassium ions
What are the intercalated cells job?
acid-base regulation through secretion of hydrogen ions
What are pricipal cells soluble to?
water and solutes, regulated by hormones
What is the continuation of the cortical collecting ducts that extend through the medulla?
Medullary collecting duct
WHere is the final concentration of urine?
Medullary collecting duct
WHat is the MCD made up of primarily?
Pricipal cells
What is the key freature of the MCD?
hormonally regulated permeability to water and urea
What is the pressure of fluid within a system or container?
hydrostatic pressure
WHat is the force of concentrated dissolved solutes that attract pure water when these solutes are separated by a selectively permeable membrnae?
OSmostic pressure
WHat is the capillary network that arises from the efferent arteriole and lies closely fixed to the renal tubules, particularly those in the renal cortex?
peritubular capillaries
The _____ within the glomerular capsule limits filtration
pressure
________ is an important varibale in the effective filtration of blood
blood pressure
glomerular filtration is a process of ____ driven by the hydrostatic pressure of the blood
bulk flow
The liquid and solutes that have passed through a filtration membrane and entered the renal tubule are the
filtrate
The fluid collecting in the capsular space is called the
glomerular filtrate
Glomerular filtrate components are
glucose, aa (organic), urea, uric acid, creatinine (nitrogenous waste), NA, K, Cl (ions)
Proteinuria is
increased protein in urine
Hematuria is
presence of blood cells in urine
The modified hydrostatic pressure within the glomerulus that promotes the formation of glomerular filtrate is
net filtration pressure
The rate at which filtrate is formed by kidneys is the
glomerular filtration rate
The normal GFR is
125 ml/min
Fluctuations in the ______ affect GFR
net filtration pressure
______ mechanisms affect autoregulation in glomerular filtration
Myogenic
IN response to high osmolarity, macula densa cells release ______
vasoconstrictor
In response to low osmolarity, macula densa cells release less vasoconstrictor and signal JG to do what?
release renin
Renin transforms ______ into ____
angiotensin to angiotensin II
What does angiotensin II do?
efferent arteriole decreases, blood flow decreases, GFR decreases, glomerular hydrostatic pressure decrease
What is active transport in which energy liberated from ATP is transferred directly to the carrier molecule participating in the transport?
primary active transport
WHat uses the imbalances created by primary active transport to move additional substances across the membrane? ATP is the indirect energy source
secondary active trasnport
____ is the total concentration of all solute particles in a solution
osmolarity
the pathway that goes through luminal and basolateral pathways
Transcellular pathway
What is the absorptive pathway in the renal tubule that permits the movement of water and solutes through cell membranes and cytosol
transcellular pathway
The pathway that goes through junctions
paracellular
What is the absorptive athway in the reanl tubules that permits the diffusion of water and solutes bewteen cells rather than through cell membranes
paracellular pathway
WHat is the narrow space that lies between the tubular cells distal to the tight junctions
lateral intercellular space
________ increases causing water to diffuse out of the tubular lumen
interstitial osmolarity
_________ concentration causes additional sodium ions to be reabsorped through the luminal membrane
Lowered intracellular
REabsorption of many substances depends on the reabsoprtion of the
sodium ion
the cellular enzyme that binds to ATP and hydrolyzes ATP into ADP, liberating the energy within the high-energy phosphate bond
ATPase
The generic term for a transmembrane protein of the plasma membrane that transports substances across the membrane
carrier molecule
Diffusion is when higher concentration goes towards a lower one because of
potassium ion pumps
What is the passive transport process that uses a carrier molecule to enable the passage of a complex molecule across the membrane?
facilitated diffusion
Glucose carrier molecules go through ______ diffusion
facilitated
The luminal membrane contains which three transport mechanisms?
sodium ion channels, Na?H counter transport and Na/glucose cotransport carrier molecules
What is the secondary active trasnport in which two or more substances move in the same direction through the plasma membrane?
co transport
What is the secondary active transport in which two or omre substances move in the opposite direction through the plasma membrane?
countertrasnport
What is a condition in which glucose levels are above normal?
hyperglycemia
What is characterized by high blood sugar levels resulting in presence of sugar in urine?
diabetes mellitus
WHat is the limiting condition for the active transport of substances across the plasma membrnaes
Transport maximum (Tm)
In the ___, tight junctions are not as tight and water diffused through the junction, sometimes taking na, cl, and k
PCT
Osmolarity of filtrate and interstitial fluid equilibriates via what?
reabsorption of water and solutes
WHat is the movement of substances all moving in the same dirrection as a result of pressure?
bulk flow
In Henle, what is water permeability restricted by?
tight junctions and glycoprotein covering of the luminal membrnae
What is the point of the cell change in the diff loops of the Henle?
membranes become permeable to H2O but not NaCl
in the ____, luminal membrnaes have few short microvilli, contain many ion channels and secondary active trasnport carriers
DCT
Formation of the medullary osmotic gradient is called the ______ theory becuase of opposing flow of filtrate in two limbs of loop of Henle
countercurrent multiplier
Complex interplay of the ascending and descending limbs ofHenle forma dn maintain the _______ in the medulla
interstitial osmolarity gradient
______ gradient is essential for concentration of urine
medullary
The ascending limb transports _____ into the itnerstitium, thus making it more concentrated as fluid becomes more dilute
NaCl
____ provides the blood supply to the medullary cells without washing away the solute responsible for medullary osmotic gradient
vasa recta
role played by the opposing flow of blood within the vasa recta to provide nutrients to and remove waste from the medullary interstitium without washing away the solutes that maintain the medullary osmotic gradient
countercurrent exchanger
Bulk of reabsoprtion occurs in the ___ tubular segments
early
In the ___ tubular segments, membrane permeability can be changed for precise regulation of final reabsprtion and secretion
late
In the DCT and CCD, intercalated cells secrete _____ ion
hydrogen
In the DCT and CCD, principal cells are permeable to _____ and ____ only in the presence of aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone
sodium ions, water
Low levels of ______ result in little basolateral Na/K ATPase ion pump activity and few luminal Na & K ions
aldosterone
Principal cells are permeable to water only in presence of an
ADH
_______ leads to increase in ADH and aldosterone
dehydration
FInal concentration of urine occurs in the
medullary collecting duct
OF the glomerular filtrate, only ____ remains as urine
5%
What is thermoregulation?
how animals maintain internal temp within a tolerable range
What is osmoregulatioN?
how animals regulate solute balance and gain and loss of H2O
What is excretion?
how an organims gets rid of nitrogen-containing waste, products of metabolism
____ is sensitive to changes in internal temp
metabolism
_____ increases with temp to a certain point and then declines when temp is high enough to denature enzymes
cell respiration
WHat do polar bears do to regulate body temp?
Hair acts as optical fiber that transmits UV radiation to the black skin, where energy is absorbed and converted to body heat
Breeze of 15 km/hr will increase total heat loss by increasing convenction
five fold
Insects and fish use _____ muscles for heat, birds and mammals _______ for heat
thoracic, bask in sun
At 20C, human at rest has metabolic rate of ______ to _____ kcal per day
1300, 1800
American alligator has _____ metabolic rate
60 kcal
What are four thermoregulation adaptations?
adjusting the rate of heat exchange between animal and surroundings, colling by evaporative heat loss, behavioral responses, changing rate of metabolic heat production
Only _____ change rate of metabolic heat production
endotherms
How do invertebrates thermoregulate?
control tem through behavior or physiological
Salamanders average body temp ranges from what to what?
7C to 25C
____ can't control social mechanisms
amphibians
Bullfrog warms up through
mucus
Fish body temp range is
within 1-2C of surrounding water temp
Mammals and birds have rage of about
36-38C, 40-42C
Mammals and birds increase heat production by
increasing contraction of muscles, increasing hormones that increase metabolic rate and production of heat
What is nonshivering thermogenesis?
hormonal triggering of heat production?
Heat loss in water occurs _____ more rapidly
50-100
Marines have metabolic rate close to
land mammals of same size
Stress induced proteins are
cells that respond to a marked stress
What is the alternative physiological state in which metabolism decreases and the heart and respiratory system slow down?
torpor
What is long term torpor due to winter cold?
hibernation
What is slow metabolism and inactivity due to high temps and scarce water supplies?
estivation
____ and ____ triggered by seasonal changes in length of day
hibernation and estivation
________ show daily torpor
bats and shrews
An animal that uses internal mechanisms to control internal change is called a
regulator
An animal that allows its interbal condition to change in accordance with external changes is called a
conformer
What is negative feedback?
control mechanism that reduces the stimulus
an example of negative feedback is
sweat
What is positive feedback?
amplifies the stimulus
What is the gradual process by which an animal adjusts to changes in its external environment?
acclimatization
What is a poikilotherm?
animal whose body temp varies with env.
Poikilos means
varied
Stenohaline is an
animal that cannot tolerate substantial changes in extenral osmolarity
stenos means
narrow
euryhaline is an animal that
can survive large fluctitations in extenrnal osmolaruty
eurys means
broad
What is negative feedback?
control mechanism that reduces the stimulus
an example of negative feedback is
sweat
What is positive feedback?
amplifies the stimulus
What is the gradual process by which an animal adjusts to changes in its external environment?
acclimatization
What is a poikilotherm?
animal whose body temp varies with env.
Poikilos means
varied
Stenohaline is an
animal that cannot tolerate substantial changes in extenral osmolarity
stenos means
narrow
euryhaline is an animal that
can survive large fluctitations in extenrnal osmolaruty
eurys means
broad
desiccation is
extreme hydration
What is the dormant state when habitats dry up?
anhydrobiosis
What goes through anhydrobiosis?
tardigrades
HUmans die if ___% of water is gone
12
What is transport epithelial?
one or more layers of epithelial cells specialized for moving particular solutes in controlled amounts in specific directions
Osmoregulation and metabolic waste disposal rely on
transport epithelia
Animals need lots of H2O to process this form of nitrogen
ammonia
Product of metabolic cycle that combines ammonia and Co2, low toxicity, able to store in high concentrations
urea
non toxic form of nitrogen that does not readily dissolve in water
uric acid
Protonephridia is used by
flatworms
Metanephridia is used by
annelids, earthworms
What uses malphigian tubules?
insects, terrestrial arthropods
What use Kidneys?
Mammals
Marine means
saltwater
albatross get rid of salt water how?
secretory tubule allows salt to be stores, goes out nostril
all vertebrates except for ____ and ____ are osmoregulators
chondrichthes, cartilage sharks
Freshwater organisms are ____ organisms and marine are ______
hypertonic, hypotonic
Urea is ____ times less toxic than ammonia
100,000
What is the concentration of water given in?
milliosmoles per liter
WHat is the concentration of human blood?
300 mosm/L
What is the concentration of seawater?
1000 mosm/L
Marine osmoregulators excrete extra salts through
gills
Turtles and tortoises can shift type of excretion from urea to uric acid when
temp goes up and H2o levels go down
What system of removal uses flame bulbs?
metanephridia
how long are the human kidneys?
12 cm
___% of blood is pumped into kidneys
25
_____L per day goes through kdineys
1500
___ muscles control urine exit, first is automatic, second is voluntary
sphincter
Normal concetration of urin is
600 mosm
Dehydration is caused by
release of ADH
when someone is dehydrated, they release ____ L/Day versys normal 1.5
.4
When dehydrated, concentration of urine is
1400 mosm
Overhydration is due to
low or absent ADH
OVerhydration leads to urine concentration of
100 mosm, 22.5 L/day
Collecting tubules join together to form the
pyramids, papillary ducts, major calyces, minor calyces, renal pelvis, ureters
Urinary bladder holds _____ ml
700-800
_____ have more urinary bladder volume than ____
males, females
at _____ml, reflex message is sent to clamp down on urethral sphincters and don't contract bladder
200-400
What is the micturition reflex?
moment you feel the bladder
The micturition reflex is part of the
sympathetic nervous systems
Low blood pressure results in ___ GFR that results in
low, anuria
anuria is when someone produces _____ml per day or urine
<50
What is renal calculi?
kidney stones, salts with calcium oxalate
Before surgery, one way to get rid of kidney stones is
lithotripsy, blasting stones
Kidney stones signify the urine has
crystalized
WHat is diabestes insipidus?
tasteless urine "no taste"=insipidus
Diabestes insipidus is caused by
damage to pituitary or hypothalamus
In Diabetes Insipidus, ______ L per day are produced
20-40
In diabestes insipidus, ______ id produced
no ADH
There are _______ for ADH on tubules in diabestes insipidus
damaged receptor glycoproteins
Diabestes insipidus can be
congenital
What is Bright's disease called?
glomerylonephritis
What is glomerylonephritis?
inflammation in the glomerulus, capillaries rupture, blood cells and large proteins enter the filtrate, permanent renal failure (death)
What is diabetes mellitus?
glucose in blood exceeds transport of PCT, overflow in urine
what is the diabetes that leads to sweet tasting urine?
diabetes mellitus
Over _____% of diabetes are in >20 years of renal failue
50
What is the symptome where you will see proteinuria?
nephrotic syndrome
What is polycystic kidney disease?
badly shapped collecting ducts form urine filled cysts
Polycystic kidney disease leads to
renal failre and death
What is blood in urine?
hematuria
What is painful urination?
dysuria
What is excess urine production?
polynuria
What is excess night time urination?
nocturia
What is lack of control of micturition reflex?
incontinence
What is artificial filtration of blood?
dialysis
We have ______ nephrons in the cortex
one million
Filtration slits are formed by
pedicels of the podocytes
angiotensin II constricts the
efferent arteriole when blood pressure becomes 80 mmhg
______ drives filtration
blood pressure
hyperglycemia acocompanies
diabetes mellitus
Interstitial osmolarity is _____ mosm greater than filtrate at any pointin tubule
200
Osmolarity of _______ is deeper than that of ______
medullary region, cortex region
Loop of henle forms medullary osmotic gradient by
countercurrent multiplier