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143 Cards in this Set

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Intermediate mesoderm forms a longitudinal elevation along the dorsal body known as what?
Urogenital Ridge
What portion of the Urogenital ridge will give rise to the urinary system?
Nephrogenic Cord
Nephrogenic cord develops into what 3 sets of nephric structures?
Pronephros
Mesonephros
Metanephros
________ consists of excretory tubules that contact blood vessels medially and enter the Mesonephric duct laterally.
Mesonephros
What is another name for Mesonephric Ducts?
Wolffian Duct
What is part of the hindgut that lies caudal to the allantoic diverticulum?
Cloaca
Cloaca is divided by the Urorectal septum, making what two areas?
Urogenital sinus
Primitive Rectum
Urectal septum will continue to move inferiorly after dividing the cloaca, to form what?
thicken to form Perineal body
Primitive Urogenital Sinus will further divided into what divisions?
VUC (vesicourethral canal) is cranial
DUC (definitive urogenital sinus) is caudal
What opens up at the junction of the vesicourethral canal and the definitive urogenital sinus?
Mesonephric Duct
What is a diverticulum of the caudal part of the Mesonephric duct?
Ureteric Bud
What forms from the inductive influence of the ureteric bud?
Metanephros (definitive kidney)
Coelomic epithelium and underlying mesoderm of the Urogenital ridge proliferate to form what?
Gonadal Ridge (gonads appear on medial side of UG ridge)
What is Segmented Intermediate mesoderm?
Pronephric System
What is Unsegmented Intermediate Mesoderm?
Mesonephric System
What is Unsegmented Mesoderm?
Metanephric System
What lies lateral to the attached dorsal mesentery and is covered by coelomic epithelium?
Urogenital Ridge
What is the cranialmost nephric structure that develops in week 3 and dissapears end of week 4?
Pronephros
What develops by the differentiation of mesoderm within the nephrogenic cord and functional for only a short period?
Mesonephros
What develops as an outgrowth of the mesonephric duct and from a condensation of mesoderm within the nephrogenic cord?
Metanephros
What is the caudalmost nephric structure that begins to develope in week 5 and is functional at about week 10?
Metanephros
Lateral nephrotomes unite to form what?
Mesonephric duct on each side. Lumen of each nephrotome will open into mesonphric duct and body cavity
Uteric bud penetrates the Metanephric Mesoderm and undergoes repeated branching (12 or so) to form what?
Collecting System: Ureters, renal pelvis, major calyces, minor calyces, and collecting ducts.
Mesonephros and Mesonephric Duct run from Upper Thoracic to ________.
Upper Lumbar
When do Mesophrenic Tubules appear as excretory tubules in the fetus?
4th week
What forms as small vessels extend from dorsal aorta? (these tufts of capillaries will protrude into Bowmans capsule)
Glomeruli
Collecting system develops from ______________ and Excretory system develops from _______________.
Collecting- Mesonephros
Excretory- Metanephros
What is part of the Urinary System is derived from Metanephrogenic cap/Blastema?
Cortex and Medulla
What happens in week 10 after glomeruli formation?
Urine Formation
How long are nephrons formed in the fetus?
till birth, then no more are formed. about 1 million nephrons in each kidney.
What causes the kidney to ascend from the sacral region to the lumbar region?
Abdominal growth
What kind of rotation does the kidney produce as it ascends to the lumbar region?
90 degrees medial rotation
What causes the kidneys to stop ascending?
When come in contact with Suprarenal Glands (9th week)
Kidneys are initially supplied by Lateral Sacral Arteries and then are supplied by __________.
Renal A (Lateral Splanchnic Br. of abdominal aorta at IV L1/L2)
What does the urinary bladder epithelium develope from?
cranial part of VUC (endoderm)
What does the Trigone epithelium develop from?
Absorbed mesonephric ducts (mesoderm) but later is overgrown by surrounding endodermal cells
What do the muscular and serous walls of the bladder develop from?
Splanchnic Mesoderm
Allantois will atrophy and will become known as what?
urachus (median umbilical ligament)
In what week are the primary sex cords, paramesonephric ducts and indifferent gonads made?
6th week
Gonads develop from what three sources?
Primordial Germ cells
Mesothelium
Underlying Mesenchyme
Gonadal ridge and Primordial Germ cells incorporate to develop what?
Primary sex cords
Gonads aquire male/female morphological characteristic by what week?
7th week
What is the mesothelium lining the Gonadal ridge called?
Mesodermal Coelomic Epithelium
In the female,primary sex cords degenerate and secondary sex cords break apart and form what?
Primordial Follicles, which contain primary oocytes. Derived from mesoderm.
What encodes for the protein Testis-determining factor?
Sry gene
In absence of TDF, what will develop?
Female development
What develops from the Primary sex cords extending into the medulla of the gonad? Do for male and female.
Male- tunica albuginea forms, seminferous cords, tubuli recti, rete testi etc.
Female- will degenerate
What develops from the Primary sex cords extending in to the cortex of the gonad?
Do for male and female.
Male- cortex degenerates
Female- tunica albuginia forms, primordial follicles
When you see primordial sex cords, for the male think________ and for the female think____________.
male- medulla
female- cortex
How do Paramesonephric Ducts develop in the female?
Passively
Mesonephric Duct passively regress in which gender?
Female
The testis will release what two substances that will further the development of the male?
MIS- Mullerian Inhibiting Substance which will cause the Paramesonephric Ducts to actively regress.
Testosterone- actively develop Mesonephric Ducts- rest of male parts
What will cause active regression of the Paramesonephric Ducts?
MIS (Mullerian Inhibiting Substance) aka AMH (Antimullerian Hormone)
What will cause active development of the Mesonephric Ducts into male parts?
Testosterone released from testis
Testis cords (medullary cords) develop from what?
Mesodermal Coelomic Epithelium
Testis cords(medullary cords) will canalize and form what in the 6th week?
Seminiferous Tubules
Dense CT in the 4th month will seperate the testis from the surface epithelium forming what?
Tunica Albuginea
Testis cords are composed of what two cell types?
Primordial Germ cells and
Sertolli cells
What develop from mesenchyme of Gonadal ridge and produce testosterone at the 8th week?
Interstial cells of Leydig
What produces the MIS that will suppress the Paramesnepric duct?
Sertolli cells (aka Sustenacular cells)
Sertolli cells will produce MIS up till when?
puberty
During testis descent, where are they at the 3rd month, 7th month, and lastly the 8th month?
3rd month- Deep Inguinal RIng
7th month- thru Inguinal Canal
8th month- scrotum
Cortical cords in females invade the mesenchym and form what?
clusters around primordial germ cells (oogonia) giving rise to Follicular Cells
In the female, where you can you find remnants of the Mesonephric Duct?
mesovarium
What in the female was the former site of the Mesonephric duct?
mesovarium
Appendix Vesiculosa
Epoophoron
Tissues that form the Round ligament in females is analogous to what in males?
Gubernaculum (scrotal lig.)
Ovaries decend by the Gubernaculum extending from the ovary to what?
labial swelling
Cranial part of the Gubernaculum in the female will become what?
Ligament of the Ovary
Caudal part of the Gubernaculum in the female will become what?
Round ligament of the uterus which is attached to the labium major
What is a persistent Processus Vaginalais in the female?
Canal Of Nuck
With developement of the prostate, endodermal buds proliferate what?
Epithelium of caudal part of VUC and Pelvic part of UG sinus
Proliferation of the endodermal buds into the VUC and UG will form what?
Prostatic Acini
What causes the cloaca to divide into Urogenital Region and Anorectal Region?
Urorectal septum descending
What develops into the Labia Minora in females?
Labioscrotal Swellings (aka Genital swellings) and the Urogenital Membrane
What develops into the Labia Majora in females?
Labrioscrotal Swellings (aka Genital swellings)
What is the line of fusion of Labioscrotal swellings in the male?
Scrotal Raphe
What is the line of fusion of the Urogenital folds in the male?
Penile Raphe
Urethral folds fuse in the males develop into what?
Penile Urethra
Urethral folds remain unfused in the female to form what?
Labia Minora
The phallus (aka Genital Tubercle) will develop into what?
Glans Penis or Clitoris
Urogenital folds form what in males?
ventral aspect of penis
Labioscrotal swellings in the male forms what?
scrotum
Anterior wall of the VUC will form what in the male?
Prostatic and Membranous Urethra
Posterior wall of the Prostatic Urethra develops from what?
absorbed parts of the mesonephric duct
What develops in the male from Definitive Urogenital Sinus and fusion of the urethral folds?
Spongy Urethra
With the development of the Suprarenal Glands, the cortex is derived from ________ and the medulla is derived from ___________.
cortex- mesoderm by 6th week
medulla- migration of neural crest cells (ectoderm)
What is the name for when there is absence of both kidneys and the nephrons fail to develop, ureteric bud fails to divide, and collecting ducts do not form?
Bilateral Renal Agenesis
What is an abnormal growth of immature cells that results in decreased number of mature normal cells?
Renal Dysplasia
What are two examples of Bilateral Renal Agenesis?
Multiple Dysplastic Agenesis
Renal Dysplasia
What is the clinical presentation of Bilateral Renal Agenesis?
Potters Sequence
What syndromes make up Potter's Sequence?
Anuria
Oligohydraminos
Pulmonary Hypoplasia
severe genital defects
What is incomplete formation of lung because little or no urine is excreted into amniotic cavity?
Pulmonary Hypoplasia
What is it called when during kidney ascent past the R/L common iliac arteries, the lower kidney poles fuse and can't ascend past the IMA?
Horseshoe Kidney
What is congenital fusion of both poles of embryonic kidneys to form one mass on midline?
Pancake Kidney
What are Polar Arteries?
Aberrant Renal Ateries
Abberrant Renal Arteries are accessory Renal A that on their way to the inferior pole of the kidney they cross anterior to the Ureter. What can this cause?
Hydronephrosis- distention and dilation of Renal pelvis
What can happen due to the failure of Excretory Tubules of Metanephros to establish contact with collecting tubules and urine can't drain from DCT, so dilation occurs?
Congenital Polycystic Kidney
What is persistence of fetal lobulation called?
Lobulated Kidney
What is a nephroblastoma that is commonly noticed at age 3?
Wilm's Tumor
Wilm's tumor (WT1 and WT2) can be related to a gene mutation on what chromosome?
chromosome 11
What are two syndromes associated with Wilm's Tumor?
WAGR syndrome and Denys-Drash syndrome
What presents with Wilm's Tumor, Pseudohermaphroiditism, and Glomerulopathy?
Denys-Drash Syndrome
What presents with Wilm's tumor, Aniridia, Hemihypertrophy, and genital malformations?
WAGR syndrome
What may be due to faulty development of Mesonephric duct and presents with ureter opening into vagina, urethra or vestibule?
Ectopic Ureter
What is due to lack of mesodermal migration below umbilicus followed by rupture of thin layer of ectoderm?
Ectopia Vesicae
Ectopia Vesicae is mainly associated with males and can be associated with ____________.
Epispadias
What would be a cause of a weeping umbilicus?
Urachus Fistula- persistence of allantois, so urine is draining from umbilicus
What is chordee?
ventral curvature of the penis
Is the most common form of Hypospadias?
Glandular Hypospadias with chordee- external urethral orifice is on ventral aspect of glans
What is it called when the external urethral orifice is on the dorsal aspect of the penis?
Epispadias
What is caused by a lack of production of cortisol and aldosterone by the adrenal glands?
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)
Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia have an increase in cortical cells resulting in what?
excessive androgen production in fetal life
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia in females presents with what?
pseudohermaphrodite-mascularization of external genitalia, enlarged clitoris and persistent urogenital sinus
What is an effect of Congential Adrenal Hyperplasia in both sexes?
accelerated skeletal maturation and rapid growth known as Adrenogenital Syndrome
What is a syndrome that presents with 47 XXY, phenotypically male, impaired sexual maturation, and underadrenogenization?
Klinefelter Syndrome
What is phenotypically female but may have XY complement, no oocytes and malformed gonads?
Gonadal Dysgenesis
What is a syndrome with 45 XO, short stature, and gonadal dysgenesis?
Turners Syndrome
What is Swyer Syndrome?
XY Female Gonadal Dysgenesis- deletion of SRY gene resulting in no secondary sexual characteristics
What is it called when someone has 46XX, has a uterus, and ambiguous external genitalia?
True Hermaphrodites
What is it called when your genotypic sex is masked by you phenotype appearance?
Pseudohermaphrodites
What is an Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome?
Testicular Feminization Syndrome- x linked recessive disorder that lacks androgen receptors
What syndrome has testis with seminiferous tubules, but no germ cells, and instertial cells of Leydig are hypoplastic?
Testicular Feminization Syndrome
What is the syndrome that the patient has testes and MIS, but no uterus and uterine tubes, and the vagina is short and blind?
Testicular Feminization Syndrome- considered FEMALE
What syndrome has external genitalia of a female, 46 XY karyotype and has testes?
Testicular Feminization Syndrome
Paramesonephric ducts in the female develop what?
uterus and uterine tubes
Mesonephric duct in males forms what?
appendix of epidydimus
duct of epidydimus
ductus deferens
ureter, pelvis, calices, and collecting tubules
ejaculatory duct
seminal vesicles
Mesonephric duct in females forms what?
uterer, pelvis, calices, and collecting tubules
appendix vesiculosa
duct of epoophoron
duct of Gartner
Urogenital sinus develops what in the male?
bladder
urethra
prostate gland
bulbourethral glands
Urogenital sinus develops what in the female?
bladder
urethra
vagina
urethral and paraurthreal glands
Great Vestibular glands
What is the most common renal malignancy of childhood?
Wilm's tumor
What is it called when two ureters drain into one kidney?
Duplex kidney
When does the metanephros become functional?
begins to form at week 5 and starts to function at week 10
A urachal cysts is a remnant of the ___________.
allantois
During surgery for a bening cyst on the kidney, the surgeon notes that the patients right kidney has two ureters and two renal pelvises. This malformation is caused by what?
Premature division of Utereric bud
Transitional epithelium lining the urinary bladder develops from what?
Endoderm- bladder dev. from upper part of UG sinus
Transitional epithelium lining the ureter develops from what?
Mesoderm- because develops from utereric bud, which is a diverticulum of the mes. duct
The trigone of the posterior wall of the urinary bladder is formed by what?
incorporation of lower end of the mesonephric ducts
The indifferent embryo begins phenotypic sexual differentiation during when?
week 7
The indifferent embryo completes phenotypic sexual differentiation during when?
week 20 it's complete (can be recognized by week 12)
The labia minora arise embryologically from which of the following structures?
Urogenital folds- remain unfused
The uterine tubes of the adult female are derived embryologically from which of the following?
Paramesonephric Ducts
The most common cause of Testicular Feminization syndrome is what?
lack of androgen receptors
In the male, failure of the urethral folds to fuse completely results in what?
Hypospadias