Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Adrenal Cortex
Outer part of adrenal gland; secretes hormone aldosterone
Afferent Arteriole
Transports blood from branch of renal artery to glomerulus
Causes diuresis because it inhibits the secretion of ADH
Adrenal cortex hormone; promotes reabsorption of sodium and therefore water
Buffers hydrogen ions in urine; produced by tubule cells by the deamination of amino acids
Abbreviation for adenosine triphosphate; necessary for active transport of sodium, glucose, amino acids across cell membranes
Blood Pressure
Causes glomerular filtration process
Bowman’s Capsule
Cuplike nephron structure surrounding the glomerulus
Capillary Fluid Exchange
Exchange of fluids, gasses, nutrients and wastes between the blood and body tissues
Collecting Duct
Structure that collects urine from several nephrons; gives renal pyramids a striated appearance
When the muscles in the wall of an arteriole contract, narrowing the diameter of the arteriole
The outer layer of an internal organ, e.g. a kidney, an adrenal gland or the brain
Removal of an amino group from an organic compound, e.g. an amino acid
Occurs when the body loses more fluid than it takes in
Distal Convoluted Tubule
Part of nephron where tubular secretion occurs
Efferent Arteriole
Transports blood from glomerulus to peritubular network
Material that has passed through a filter
Blood protein; contributes to osmolarity of blood (i.e. establishment of an osmotic gradient between blood & filtrate)
Cluster of capillaries surrounded by glomerular capsule; where glomerular filtration takes place
Monomer; end product of carbohydrate digestion; reabsorbed from PCT into peritubular blood capillaries
Released by mast cells as part of an allergic reaction in humans; actively secreted into the DCT
Maintenance of the internal environment (temperature, blood pressure, pH, etc.) within narrow limits
Relatively higher concentration of solute, lower concentration of water
Relatively lower concentration of solute, higher concentration of water
Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
Monitors blood pressure across renal corpuscle; secretes renin when blood pressure is too low
Bean-shaped, reddish-brown organ; produces urine; excretes nitrogenous wastes, maintains water, salt and pH
Loop Of Henle
Part of nephron that makes a U-turn; extrudes salt, facilitating reabsorption of water
Inner, central part of organs such as the kidneys, adrenal glands and the brain
Metabolic Waste
Substances left over from respiration; can’t be used, might be lethal (CO2, nitrogen compounds, etc.)
Functional unit of the kidney; produces urine
Nitrogenous Waste
Animal wastes that contains materials high in nitrogen content, e.g. urea
Osmotic Gradient
Difference in concentration between two solutions on either side of a semipermeable membrane
Osmotic Pressure
Pressure that must be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of water across a semipermeable membrane
Antibiotic derived from Penicillium sp. fungi; secreted from peritubular blood into filtrate at the DCT
A radially symmetrical contraction of muscles which propagates in a wave down a muscular tube
Peritubular Capillary Network
Capillary bed surrounding the nephron
Can be penetrated by a particular substance, is ……………………… to the substance
Measure of the acidity or the basicity of a solution
Posterior Pituitary
Where ADH is released; lobe of the pea-sized endocrine gland off the bottom of the brain
Proximal Convoluted Tubule
Part of nephron where tubular reabsorption occurs
Renal Arteries
Blood vessels that supply the kidneys with oxygenated, unfiltered blood
Renal Arterioles
Smallest arteries in the kidneys
Renal Cortex
Outer granulated layer of the kidney
Renal Medulla
Inner striated layer of the kidney
Renal Pelvis
Central cavity in the kidney; collects urine from all the renal pyramids; continuous with ureter
Renal Vein
Blood vessel that transports deoxygenated, filtered blood from kidney to inferior vena cava
Enzyme secreted by juxtaglomerular apparatus when blood pressure is too low for glomerular filtration
Selective Reabsorption
Occurs in PCT when only some substances are selected for reabsorption
Tubular Secretion
Process that happens in the DCT; H+, creatinine, penicillin, histamine secreted into filtrate
Small tube
An organic chemical compound (NH2)CO; the waste produced when the body metabolizes protein
Urinary system tube; transports urine from kidney to urinary bladder
Urinary system tube; transports urine from urinary bladder through urethral orifice to outside the body
Urinary Bladder
Organ of the urinary system in which urine is stored before it is excreted
The act of excreting urine
Yellow to amber-coloured liquid secreted by the kidneys and excreted through the urethra and urethral orifice
Water Reabsorption
Passive transport (osmosis) of water from nephron into ECF of renal medulla
Antidiuretic Hormone
Released by posterior lobe of pituitary gland; promotes absorption of water, i.e. more concentrated urine