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62 Cards in this Set

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Bowman's capsule
the cup - shaped beginning of the nephron that surrounds the glomerulus
Calyx
cup-shaped division of the renal pelvis
Catheterization
passage of a flexible tube (catheter) into the bladder through the urethra for the withdrawal of urine
Collecting tubule
straight part of a renal tubule formed by the distal tubules of several nephrons joining together
Cortex
outer part of an internal organ: for exmaple, the outer part of the cerebrum and of the kidneys
Cortical nephrons
miscroscopic unit of the kidney that makes up 85% of all nephron units in the kidney; is located almost entirely in the renal cortex
Distal Convoluted tubule
the part of the tubule distal to the ascending limb of the loop of Henle in the kidney
Emptying reflex
the reflex that causes the contraction of the bladder wall and relaxation of internal sphincter to allow urine to enter the urethra
Glomerular Filtrate
filters out water and solutes (for example Na+, and other ions, glucose and other nutrients filtering out of glomeruli into bowman's capsule
Glomerulus
compact, cluster, for example, capillaries in the kidneys
Juxtaglomerular apparatus
complex of cells in nephron near the glomerulus and adjacent to the distal tubule and afferent arteriole, secretes renin
Loop of Henle
extension of the proximal tubule of the kidney
Medulla
the inner portion of an organ in contrast to the outer portion or cortex
Micturition
urination, voiding
Proximal convoluted tubule
the first segment of a renal tubule
Nephron unit
anatomical and functional unit of the kidney, consisting of the renal corpuscle
Papilla
small, nipple shaped diameter
Pyramid
triangular shaped divisions of the medulla of the kidney
Renal Columns
Extensions of corticol tissue that dip down into the medulla of the kidney between renal pyramids
Renal Corpuscle
the part of the nephron located in the cortex of the kidney
Renal Pelvis
basin-like upper end of the ureter that is located inside the kidney
Renal tubule
one of the two principal parts of the nephron
Retroperitoneal
area outside the periotoneum
Secretion
in kidney function refers to the active movement of substances such as electrolytes, waste products or drugs through kidney tubule cells into the urine
Sphicter
ring shaped muscle
Trigone
triangular area on the wall of the urinary bladder
Urinary Meatus
external opening of the meatus
Urination
passage of urine from the body, emptying of the bladder
voiding
emptying of the bladder
Adult polycystic kidney disease
hereditary condition characterized by development of multiple cystic spaces in one or both kidneys which often fill with clear fluid or blood
Anuria
Absence of Urine
Catherization
passage of flexible tube (catheter) into the bladder through the urethra for the withdrawal of urine
Continuous ambulatory pertoneal dialysis (CAPD)
an alternative form of treatment for renal failure that may be used instead of the more complex and expensive hemodialysis
Cystitis
inflammation or infection of the urinary bladder
Cystoscope
hollow instrument inserted through the urethra into the bladder that permits the passage of a light source and surgical instruments to be used for direct examination
Dysuria
difficulty, painful, burning urinating
Enuresis
involuntary urination
Glomerulonephritis
inflammatory disease of the glomerular-capsular membranes of the kidney
Hematuria
symptom of blood in the urine
Hemodialysis
use of dialysis to seperate waste products form the blood
Hydronephrosis
pathological swelling or enlargement of renal pelvis or calyces caused by blockage of urine flow
Hypoalbumiemia
condition of low albumin (protein) in the blood plasma; it often results from renal disorders or malnutrtion
Incontinence
condition in which an individual voids urine involuntary
lithotriptor
a specialized ultrasound generator that is used to pulverize kidney stones
nephritis
general term referring to inflammatory or infectious conditions of the renal corpuscle and the renal tubule
nephropathy
kidney disease
neprotic syndrome
group of signs and symptoms that often accompany glomerular disorders of the kidney; proteinuria, albuminemia, and edema
neurogenic bladder
condition in which the nervous control of the urinary bladder is impaired, causing abnormal or obstructed flow of urine from the body
nosocomial infection
infection that begins in the hospital or clinic
oliguria
scanty amounts of urine
overactive bladder
refers to frequent urination characterized by urgency and pain
phenylketouria (PKU)
recesive, inherited condition characterized by excess of phenylketone in the urine, acummulation in tissues and may cause brain injury and death
polyuria
lots of urine
proteinuria
presence of abnormally high amounts of plasma protein in the urine; usually an idicator of kidney disease
pyelonephritis
infectious condition characterized by inflammation of the renal pelvis and connective tissue in the kidneys
renal calculi
kidney stones
renal failure
acute or chronic loss of kidney function
renal colic
pain caused by the passage of a kidney stone
uremia
condition in which blood urea conc. is abormally high, expressed in high BUN, also called uremic poisoning
urethritis
inflammation or infection of the urethra
urinary retention
condition in which o urine is voided
urinary suppression
condition in which the kidneys do not produce urine