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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
General signs and symptoms of urinary tract disorders in neonates include?
-FTT, poor feeding, vomit, dehydration
-tachycardia, respiratory distress, seizures
-urinary frequency, enlarged kidney/bladder
General signs and symptoms of urinary tract disorders in infants include?
-foul-smelling urine, pallor, fever
General signs and symptoms of urinary tract disorders in a child include?
-poor appetite, vomit, thirst, enuresis, dysuria, frequency, fatigue, pain, increased B/P
The single most important test for detection of renal problems is?
Most useful estimation of glomerular filtration rate is the clearance of ___.
Assess for allergies for these 2 urinary diagnostic tests due to injection of contrast medium.
1. IVP
2. voiding cystourethrogram
The diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR)is made by?
Complications of VUR include:
renal scarring, renal hypertension, chronic renal failure
3 examples of antibiotics and antispasmodics?
Atropine, Pyridium, Urimax
Associated anamolies of exstrophy of the bladder include:
epispadia, double clitoris, widened symphysis pubis which can cause malrotation of the hips
1st stage of surgery for exstrophy of the bladder involves?
reconstruction of the bladder reservoir
2nd stage of surgery for exstrophy of the bladder involves?
reconstruction of bladder neck and urethra
Position the patient who has had surgery for exstrophy of the bladder in a ___ position.
Stress incontinence can occur after the second stage repair of exstrophy of the bladder.
Nephrotic syndrome is characterized by (4)...
severe edema
Manifestations of nephrotic syndrome?
-weight gain
-peripheral, labial, scrotal edema
-anorexia, diarrhea, malnutrition
-respiratory difficulties, (i.e.pulmonary congestion)pallor, fatigue, lethargy
-dark, frothy urine
-increased susceptibility to infection
In nephrotic syndrome there is increased secretion of ADH and aldosterone.
The loss of ___ is the primary indicator of nephrotic syndrome.
Daily loss of protein in nephrotic syndrome is ___.
50 mg/kg/day
Blood studies would show an albumin level less than ___.
2 gm dl
Primary agent for the management of nephrotic syndrome is?
Prednisone (corticosteroid)
High doses of Prednisone in children can cause ___.
growth retardation
What 4 types of meds are given for nephrotic syndrome?
1. corticosteroids (Prednisone)
2. Immunosuppresants (Cytoxan, Leukoran, Neoral)
3. Diuretics (Lasix/Aldactone)
4. Plasma expanders
5. ACE inhibitors for HTN
7. Antibiotics for infection
S/E of immunosuppresants?
leukopenia, male sterility (>3 months), increases risk of seizure
The use of immunosuppresants for the management of nephrotic syndrome should be limited to ___.
2-3 months
3 cardiovascular complications of nephrotic syndrome?
1. HTN
2. tachycardia
3. thrombosis
High doses of Prednisone can cause (5):
1. *growth retardation
2. cataracts
3. osteomalacia
4. HTN
5. obesity
What are 3 S/S of steroids?
1. rounding of the face
2. increased appetite
3. weight gain
Onset of AGN occurs ___ days after strep infection.
AGN occurs after an infection with ___.
group a beta-hemolytic strep
Group a beta-hemolytic strep of the skin causes ___ while group a beta-hemolytic strep of the pharynx causes ___.
impetigo; pharyngitis
___ can cause hypertensive encephalopathy.
Manifestations of AGN:
-hematuria/proteinuria; dysuria
-tea-colored urine
-wt.gain, edema, possible oliguria
-perioribtal edema, anasarca
-encephalopathy: H/A, N/V, irritability, fatigue
-azotemia with increased BUN and creatinine
-proteinuria, RBC, WBC, casts
-HTN (mild to moderate)
-anemia, leukocytosis
-Positive anti-streptolysin-O-titer
-Elevated ESR
S/S of complications of AGN:
-elevated B/P, H/A, dizziness, abdominal discomfort, vomiting, altered LOC, seizures (hypertensive encephalopathy)
-coughing, restlessness, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (pulmonary edema)
-tachycardia, tachycardia, dyspnea (CHF)
-severe oliguria/anuria
hemolytic uremic syndrome is characterized by (3):
1. hemolytic anemia
2. acute renal failure
3. thrombocytopenia
Hemolytic uremic syndrome is usually linked to ___ caused by ___.
verotoxin; e.coli
Prodromal stage of hemolytic uremic syndrome is characterized by:
-upper respiratory illness, fever, irritability, skin rash
-edema, abdominal pain, N/V, bloody diarrhea
Acute stage of hemolytic uremic syndrome is characterized by:
-hemolytic anemia, HTN, pallor, purpura
-neuro (irritability, seizures, altered LOC, hallucinations, cerebral edema, posturing, blindness)
In hemolytic uremic syndrome, acute renal failure occurs due to blood clotting in renal arterioles and toxic effect of hemolyzed RBCs.
Treat increased phosphorus with ___.
aluminum hydroxide gel
Treat decreased calcium levels with ___ or ___.
calcium gluconate; calcium chloride
What kind of dialysis is preferred to treat hemolytic uremic syndrome?
Diet for the treatment of hemolytic uremic syndrome should be ___ calorie, ___ CHO, ___ PRO, ___ Na, ___ K, ___ Ph
increased, increased, decreased, increased, decreased, decreased