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51 Cards in this Set

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What cities are listed as "supercities"?

What is the problem associated with these cities?
Mexico City, Rio de Janeiro, Cairo, New Delhi, Tokyo

Overcrowding (unable to provide basic services such as water, housing, electricity)
What are the following sets of cities associated with?

hellenic Athens, Renaissance Floence, Elizabethan London

classical Rome, Nazi Berlin
great achievements of the human spirit

savage human degradation
What helps to shape a city's character?
A cultural setting
What percentage of the world's population was urban in 1900? Today? In 2025?
9%, almost 1/2, 2/3
To study the city is also to examine _________ in which it exists.
the society.
Understanding the city is crucial in order to comprehend _______ _______.
modern existence. (3)
Poet John Ciardi's paradigm:
must experience how all the complex elements fit together.
100,000 years ago:

10,000 years ago:

3,000 years ago:

Today:
Man has been around this long

Cities appear

Cities numerous

Most of the world's population in urban areas
Man has been around this long

Cities appear

Cities numerous

Most of the world's population in urban areas
100,000 years

10,000 years ago

3,000 years ago

Today
Richard Henry Dana: Two Years Before the Mast (1862)
Seagoing journal. Leaves San Francisco (Yerba Buena) 1835,
gold discovered in 1849,
Returns 1859, city is over 100,000
Four Important Archeological Finds: (pg. 7)
pre-Incan "Gran Pajaten" (disc. 1965) north of Lima, Peru

Pre-Columbian "Machu Picchu" (disc. 1911) south of Lima, Peru

London: 1997 10 excavation sites Around London Bridge -> Roman london

New York: Wall Street -> Dutch settlement of 1625
Reactions to city are social in two senses: (pg. 8)
First, it is the social environment of the city that generates them.

Second, they are social in that they are common; they resonate with most of us.
Define "Urbanism":
A concept referring to those social-psychological aspects of life, personality patterns, and behavioral adaptations influenced by the city.
What Aristotleian notion did people find when cities began to appear? (pg. 9)
"The good life"
Urban geography: (pg. 9)
the significance of the city’s location and natural resources
• Urban Ecology: (pg.9)
analyses how people spread out within an urban area
The process by which a once-affluent area is robbed of its businesses, and low-income 'seedy' types take over: (pg.9)
Invasion and Succession
Define "culture": (pg.13)
The basic beliefs, values, and technology that characterize a city in a particular historical era.
Technological developments that led to the skyscraper: (pg.13)
steel-frame buildings
electrically powered elevators
Technilogical advinces leading to the suburb: (13)
Superhighways or mass public transportation linking cities and suburbs
Technological advances leading to superhighways and mass public transportation: (13)
steel, railroads, electricity, private automobile.
Difference between London and New York cabbies: (13)
London: 1) many private cabbies (40%) own their own cabs, no animosity betwen cabbies and companies, 2) strict gov't regulation

New York: 1) few private cabbies, companies own everything 2) little gov't regulation
What was the influence of the Industrial Revolution on the city?:
City became important as a center of wealth.
Until the 1960's, the study of the economics of land use was dependent on an _______ model
ecological
“Urban Political Economy”:
theoretical emphasis focuses on investment decisions and economic trends that determine a city’s fortunes.
(N. America) _________ cities have gained markedly in population in the last decade, while __________ and ________ cities have generally declined.
“Sunbelt”
midwestern
northeastern
Two N. American trends:(16)
1) Move to “Sunbelt” cities from midwest and northeast cities
2) living in smaller cities or farther away from central cities
What are two factors that account for the N. American trends to Sunbelt and smaller cities?
Retirement
Exodus of business and industry from center cities
What are reasons for the exodus of business and industry from center cities?
escape:
high taxation
congestion
outmoded plants
high union wages
excessive heating costs (in the north)
First manefestation of desire for "living space" in affordable housing occured in (two decades):
1950s-1960s
“Social Structure”: (18)
the recurrent patterns of city life that are shaped significantly by the unequal distribution of important urban resources, including wealth, power, and prestige
“Social Stratification”: (18)
the hierarchical ranking of people in terms of valued resources.
“Social Power”: (18)
the ability to achieve one’s ends and to shape events.
For those with considerable wealth, ________ _______ is often the experience of shaping their own lives. For poorer __________, many of whom are members of racial and ethnic minorities, life in ___ ____ is a grim matter of trying to cope with forces that seem overwhelming. (18)
urban living
urbanites
the city
Becouse cities concentrate everything human in a small space, they intensify the effects of _____, _____, ________, _______, and _____.
class
race
ethnicity
gender
power
“Urbanization”:
the concentration of people in cities and other densely populated areas.
In 1800, only ________ was a city of one million people.
Beijing
Today there are _____ cities where a million or more people reside.
130
The world's cities are growing by ____ ________ people per week
one million
By _____, more than 2/3 of the world's people wil live in an urban area.
2025
In the more __________ areas of the world, urban growth has slowed considerably.
Industrialized.
In 1960, the urban population of the US was _____%. In 2000, it was ______%.

This is an example of:
69.9%
77%

the slower urbanization rate of industrialized nations.
The area of greatest urban growth is now in the _________ ________. In _______ _______, ________, _______ _______, and _____.
developing world

Latin America
Africa
Middle East
Asia
In many cities of the developing world, material living standards are _________ ________. (22)
appallingly low
"Gentrification": (348)
The movement of the affluent into older portions of the city.
In the 1980's, several urban observers viewed postindustrial cities an increasingly characterized by two _____ ____ that fostered two dramatically unequal lifestyles; that of the _____ _____ and the ____ ______.
labor markets
high-paid
low-paid
roger Waldinger (1996) speaks about:
The interdependance between the city's affluent and poor, and of how the instability in the labor market and then the transformation of the ethnic division of labor is leading to positive developments in postindustrial NY.
Case study (NY): 4 things that make NY outstanding:
1) Size (>8mil)
2) U.S.'s greatest concentration of business and finance (10% US Corp. have HQ in NY)
3) Largest U.S. port (has dominated commerce since early 1800s)
4) Diversity (> 50 foreign-language newspapers published)
Case study (NY): Chronologically, NY was the ___ of the 5 magor colonial settlements:
earliest
Case study (NY):________ ________ entered the river named for him in ______.
Henry Hudson
1609
Case study (NY):NY was a small settlement by ______.
1624