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45 Cards in this Set

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How many square feet are in a acre?
43,560 sq. ft.
How many acres are in a square mile?
640 acres
How many square miles are in a township?
36 Sq. Miles
What date did the Columbian Exposition Open?
May 1st, 1893
What city hosted the Columbian Exposition?
Chicago, Illinois
Name the principal architects / planners of the COlumbian Exposition and tell what each one was responsible for.
Daniel BURNHAM - Responsible for OVERALL DEVELOPMENT. Basically the administrator and coordinator.

Fredrick Law OLMSTEAD - Responsible for SITE PLAN for Exposition to relate building to one(1) another in space.
General OGLETHORPE
Planned and founded SAVANNAH, Georgia
Charles Pierre L'ENFANT
Prepared(initial) 1791 plan for WASHINGTON, DC. The plan was based of classical design principles with radials from powers of government: capitol for Congress; President's Palace(White House) for President and Supreme Court. A grid street plan overlaid the "monumental" classical plan linking important sites.
Baron HAUSSMANN
Planned and developed the 1853 RENEWAL OF PARIS, FRANCE. Included axial aligned streets turned into grand boulevards that terminated at major features within city and buildings along the new streets that were redeveloped in similar style to promote unified appearence.
George M. PULLMAN
Developed PULLMAN, ILLINOIS as a model railroad town. Pullman had sound housing, amenities and was attractively landscaped. The project failed due to high rents and low wages paid the Pullman employees. The working conditions led to a strike that spread to Chicago and along the railroads of the country.
Tell what the "Wacker Manual" was based on and why it is important.
The Wacker Manual was BASED ON Daniel Burnham's 1909, metropolitan plan for Chicago, Illinois. The Wacker Manual was the SCHOOL TEXTBOOK USED TO TEACH STUDENTS about the plan
What major impact did the New York Plan of 1807 have on urban form and how long did the influence last?
After three(3) years od study the 1807 New York Plan adopted the "grid iron street plan." The effect was to LEGITIMIZE THE GRID IRON STREET PLAN as the method to layout streets. The use of the grid iron plan was common UNTIL TO CHICAGO Exposition(1893) when curvilinear streets became popular in subdivisions.
What movement ended the City Beautiful Movement?
The "EFFICIENT CITY MOVEMENT" that followed the City Beautiful Movement in the 1910 to 1933 era, felt that expensive gevernment buildings, monuments, boulevards, art, sculpture and related embellishments were "window dressing".
Explain why Greenbrook, New Jersey, the forth(4th) greenbelt town was not developed.
In 1936, the U.S. COURT of Appeals for the District of Columbia, ruled in the case Township of Franklin versus Tugwell, that the Emergency Relief Appropriation ACT WAS INVALID and the federal program operated by the Resettlement Administration had no authority to use the power of eminent domain in states for housing purposes.
Define "Agora"
GREEK MARKETPLACE
Define "Forum"
ROMAN MEETING PLACE
Define "Long Lot"
RESIDENTIAL LOT THAT COULD BE UP TO 1 MILE IN DEPTH AND THE RESIDENT USED THE BSCK PORTION AS A FARM.
Identify William Penn
Founded PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA
Identify Francis Cabot Lowell
Founded LOWELL, MASSACHUSETTS
Identify Elisha Otis
Invented the 1st PRACTICAL ELEVATOR, the Otis Elevator. 1st installed in a New Yourk Building in 1857, and in 1859 an elavator was installed in the Hotel Astor
Identify Andrew Jackson Downing
Wrote a LANDSCAPING BOOK THAT PROMOTED THE USE AND POPULARITY OF THE "OPEN LOT".
What American City is unique because it was planned and developed with the grid iron plan broken up by a series of public squares?
Savannah, Georgia
What was the purpose of the "National Commission on Fine Arts"?
Created in 1910 to ADVISE ON THE FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF WASHINGTON, D.C.
Identify 2 incentives, excluding the agents house, that railroads offered to encourage development of their western towns.
-Railroad Company would control the property to avoid land speculation thereby offering residents cheap land.
-The 1st Settlers could live in rail cars until their home was built.
Identify and tell the purpose of two(2) significant design/development features used in Radburn, New Jersey.
Radburn designers, based on the English Garden City concept, wanted to minimize internal traffic and preserve as much open space as possible for parks and playgrounds. The plan incorperated DEAD-END STREETS and GREEN WALKWAYS BEHIND THE HOUSES to accomplish these goals.
What happened on October 8th, 1871?
Chicago Fire
What happened on May 1st, 1893?
Columbia Exposition opened in Chicago
In 1926 the Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Village of Euclid in the case "Village of Euclid v. Ambler" after Alfred Bettmen filed an "amicus curiae" siding with the Village of Euclid. What is the Significance of this case?
AUTHORITY OF CITIES TO ADOPT AND ENFORCE ZONING ORDINANCES
Defint "legibility" as used in "Image of the City".
The legibility of a cityscape refers to the ease with which its parts can be recognized and organized into a coherent pattern.
Define "Path".
Paths are channels along with observers move. Paths include walkways, streets, transit lines, canals, and railroads. By definition paths are axial elements in the community.
Define "District".
Districts are medium to large sections of a city that are typically defined as two dimensional spaces. Districts usually have a common, identifying characteristic.
Define "Edge".
Edges are linear elements in the community that are not considered as "paths" by the observer. Edges may be:
1). Barriers that close off areas
2). Semi-penetrable
3). Seams that join and relate the two(2) areas to each other.
Define "Node".
Nodes are points or small areas in a city that are recognized as strategic locations, intensive focal points, breaks in transportation or the crossing of paths.
Define "Landmark".
Landmarks are external reference points that the observer does not usually enter.
Identify five(5) of the factors/features that Lynch cites as making "districts" more legible.
-Signs
-Building Type
-District Name
-Texture
-Color
-Material
-Street Paving
-Facade details
-Expressway
-Railroad
State Von Thunen's Theory.
Given a uniform land surface and ideal conditions a city will develop in the center of the land area and concentric rings will develop around the central city.
State Christaller's Theory.
A certain amount of productive land supports an urban center. The center exists because services must be performed for the surrounding land.
Identify person responsible for Concentric Ring Theory and year theory was published.
Ernst W. Burgess
1925 & 29
Identify person responsible for Sector Theory and year theory was published.
Homer Hoyt
1936-37
Identify person responsible for Multiple Nuclei Theory and year theory was published.
Chauncey D. Harris
1943 & 45
What explanations are incorperated in the "Concentric Ring Theory" for growth when the Growth is positive or expanding?
The rings grow wider in an outward direction and invade the next outer ring
What explanations are incorperated in the "Concentric Ring Theory" for growth when the Growth is negative or decreasing?
The rings remain constant except the second(2nd) ring. It is explained to invade the inner circle. It is likely that commerical shrinkage occurs in the inner circle that allows additional decay that widens the slum area at the edge of the second(2nd) ring.
Who's involved in Urban Decision Making Process?
-Developer
-Seller
-Federal Government
-State Government
-Buyer/Renter
-Developer
Role of Developer
To take piece of raw land, lay out building lots, build streets, install services(utilities), provide facilities, erect buildings - either industrial, commerical or residential and to sell or rent the finished buildings or space to occupants.
Role of Seller
Usually the guy that's unwilling to let go of land easily, so sometimes "leapfrog development" happens, where in new development occurs around the property.