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92 Cards in this Set

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Alpha 1 (5)
increases force of heart contraction, vasoconstriction increases BP
mydriasis (pupil dilation) salivary glands decrease secretion, bladder & prostate capsule increases contraction & ejaculation
Alpha 2 (4)
Inhibits the release of norepinephrine
dilates blood vessels
produces hypotension decreases GI motility & tone
Beta 1 (3)
Increases heart rate & force of contraction,
increaes renin secretion increases BP
Beta 2 (4)
Dialates the bronchioles, promotes GI & uterine relax promotes increase in blood sugar through glycogenolysis in the liver
increases blood flow in the skeletal muscle
Upper respiratory infections include: (4)
common cold
acute rhinitis
sinusitis
acute pharyngitis
The common cold is caused by:
rhinovirus
The common cold affects:
nasopharyngeal tract
How do antihistamines work?
They are H1 blockers (antagonists) that compete w/ histamine for receptor sites
What happens when H1 is stimulated?
extravascular smooth muslces are constricted
What happens when H2 is stimulated?
Increase in gastric secretions which can cause peptic ulcer
Many OTC drugs contain what classification of antihistamines?
first generation
The link between sedation and second generation antihistamines?
Second generation antihistamines usually do not cause sedation
The drug class of diphenhydramine?
Antihistamine
Trade name for diphenhydramine
benadryl
Pregnancy category for Diphenhydramine:
B
Contraindications for diphenhydramine: (5)
Acute asthmatic attack
Severe liver disease
Lower respiratory disease
Neonate
MAOI's
Use caution with diphenhyramine w/: (5)
Narrow-angle glaucoma
Benign prostatic hypertrophy
Pregnancy/breastfeeding
Newborn or Premature Infant
Urinary retention
Dipenhenhydramin treats: (5)
allergic rhinitis
itching
prevent motion sickness
sleep aid
antitussive
How it works and what it effects (3) dipenhenhydramine:
blocks histamine1
effects resp, blood vessels, and GI system
Side effects of diphenhydramine: (11)
drowsiness/fatigue
dizziness
urinary retention
constipation
blurred vision
dry mouth & throat
hypotension
epigastric distress
hearing disturbances
excitation in children
photosensitivity
Adverse side effects of diphenhydramine:
Agraulocytosis
hemolytic anemia
thrombocytopenia
chlorpheniramine maleate is under what classification?
first generation antihistamine
Tavist is under what classification
first generation antihistamine
Benadryl is under what classification
first generation antihistamine
Periactin is under what classification
first generation antihistamine
Astelin is under what classification
second generation antihistamine
The classification of zyrtec
second generation antihistamine
Allegra is under what classification
second generation antihistamine
Claritin is under what classification
second generation antihistamine
Clarinex is under what classification
second generation antihistamine
Nasal congestion results from:
dilation of nasal blood vessels caused by infection, inflammation, or allergy
Another name for decongestants:
sympathomimetic amines
Decongestants work by:
stimulating the alpha-adrengic receptors producing vascular constriction
Frequent use of decongestants cause:
rebound nasal congestion(rebound vasodialation instead of vasoconstriction)
Are systemic decongestants alpha or beta
alpha-adrengic agonists
Advantage of systemic decongestants
relieve nasal congestion longer
Advantage of nasal decongestants:
act promptly & cause fewer SE
What classification is efedron under:
systemic & nasal decongestants
What classification is Afrin under:
systemic & nasal decongestants
What classifcation is Neo-synephrine under:
systemic & nasal decongestants
What classification is Sinex under
systemic & nasal decongestants
What classification is Novafed under:
systemic & nasal decongestants
What classification is Sudafed under:
systemic & nasal decongestants
Chance of SE of topical preperations:
low
SE of decongestants (3)
jittery
nervousness
restlessness
disapppear as body adjusts
How many days can you take a decongestant before the rebound effect takes place?
5 days
Pseuoephedrine decreases what:
beta-blockers
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) increase
hypertension or caridac dysrhythmias
A patient taking decongestants shold avoid:
large amts of caffeine
Intranasal glucocorticoids are used to treat:
allergic rhinitis
How do intranasal glucocortocoids work:
antiimflammatory action decreasing allergic rhinitis symptoms
Continuous use of intranasal glucocortocoids causes:
dryness of nasal mucosa
Dexamethasone should not be longer for:
30 days or systemic effects occur
Beconase is under what classification:
Intranasal glucocortocoids
Vancenase is under what classification:
Intranasal glucocortocoids
Vanceril is under what classification:
Intranasal glucocorticoids
Pulmicort is under what classification:
Intranasal glucocorticoids
Rhinocort is under what classification:
Intranasal glucocorticoids
Decadron is under what classification:
Intranasal glucocorticoids
*most potent*
Flonase is under what classification:
Intranasal glucocorticoids
Flovent is under what classification:
Intranasal glucocoritcoids
Antitussives act on:
cough-control center in the medulla to suppress the cough reflex
Dextromethorphan hydrobromide drug class:
antitussive
Trade names for dextromethorphan hydrobromide: (5)
Robitussin DM
Romilar
Sucrets Cough Control
PediaCare
Benylin DM
Pregnancy category for dextromethorphan hydrobromide:
C
Contraindications for Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide: (4)
chronic obstructive pulmonary
chronic productive cough
hypersensitivity
MAOI'S
Drug interactions with dextromethorphan hydrobromide: (4)
narcotics
any sedatives
barbiurates
antidepressants
Uses of dextromethorphan hydrobromide: (2)
supress cough
thin mucus
Mode of action for dextrothorphan hydrobromide:
inhibition of the cough center in the medulla
SE of dextromethorphan hydrobromide: (2)
dizziness
drowsiness
Adverse rx of dextromethorpah:
hallucinations at high doses
How expectorants work:
loosen bronchial secretions so they can be eliminated by coughing
The best exportant is:
hydration
The most common expectorant is:
guaifenesin
What is sinusitis:
inflammation of the mucous membranes of one or more of the sinuses
If there are acute or severe sinusitis:
antibiotic can be given
When treating sinusitis what can hurt?
the teeth
What classification is Cheracol:
narcotic antitussive
What classification is Robitussin A-C
narcotic antitussive
What classification is Robitussin under:
expectorants
What classification is anti-tuss under:
expectorants
what classification is glycotuss:
expectorants
What classification is robitussin-DM under?
antitussive/expectorant
acute pharyngitis is:
inflammation of the throat or "sore throat"
Acute pharyngitis can be caused by: (2)
virus
beta-hemolytic steptococci (strep throat)
S/S of acute pharyngitis: (2)
elevated temp
cough
Treatment for beta-hemolytic streptococci:
10day course of antibiotics
Antibiotics are not effective for: (2)
common cold
viral pharyngitis
What is mono and the treatment:
it is a virus and there is no treatment
Pregnancy category of MAO
C use sparingly with infants
What increases with decongestants (alpha-adrenergic drug) (2)
BP
blood glucose
Decongestants are contraindicated with (3)
cardiac
hyperthyroidism
diabetes