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26 Cards in this Set

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What is the purpose of the vascular system?
To profuse the tissues with what they need.
Name the types of blood vessels that blood passes through in a full circulation, starting with the heart.
Large arteries, small arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins, vena cava.
What is the intima of an artery?
The smooth lining of endolithial cells.
What is the media of an artery?
The smooth muscle and connective tissue.
What is the adventitia of an artery?
The outside.
What is the range of diameters for blood vessels?
From 8 micrometers for the capillaries to 30 mm in the vena cava.
What is the primary structural difference between arteries and veins?
Arteries generally have much more smooth muscle.
What is the equation for flow rate?
Flow rate = Pressure difference (Arterial pressure) / Resistance
Resistance is proportional to...
...1/radius^4.
What are some less important regulators of blood flow in the body?
Length of blood vessel, viscosity of blood.
What is myogenic activity, as it concerns blood vessels?
The shrinking or stretching of blood vessels to give you consistent blood flow.
What type of channels are responsible for myogenic activity?
Calcium channels.
What is hyperemia?
Extra blood flow (given to respond to extra demand).
What factors lead to hyperemia?
CO2, adenosine, H+, heat.
What are the primary vasodilators produced by the endothelium?
Nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandins (like PGI2 & PGE2), and endolithium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs).
What is angiogenesis?
The development of new blood vessels.
What 2 molecules combine to make nitric oxide synthase?
O2 and L-Arginine.
What does nitric oxide cause to be formed?
cGMP (which causes dilation of blood vessels).
The eicosanoid thromboxane causes __________ of the blood vessels.
constriction
The eicosanoid prostacyclin causes __________ of the blood vessels.
dilation
What is the EDHF?
It isn't known, but there are many "candidate factors."
What is meant by "vascular tone"?
The balance between vasoconstriction and vasodilation.
What is the primary vasoconstrictor produced by the endothelium?
Endothelin.
What is a unique characteristic of ET-1?
It can be a vasoconstrictor and also occasionally a vasodilator.
What is the function of capillaries in the skin?
To promote heat loss (they don't exchange molecules).
What do skeletal muscle do when sympathetically stimulated?
They contract to apply pressure to the veins and get blood back to the heart faster.