Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/68

Click to flip

68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the seven continents?•
• North America
• South America
• Africa
• Asia
• Australia
• Antarctica
• Europe*
Where are the geographic regions of North America located?
Coastal Plain Appalachian Highlands Canadian Shield Interior Lowlands Great Plains Rocky Mountains Basin and Range Coastal Range
Coastal Plains
• Located along the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico
• Broad lowland providing many excellent harbors
Appalachian Mountains
• Located west of Coastal Plain extending from eastern Canada to western Alabama; includes the Piedmont
• Old, eroded mountains (oldest mountain range in North America)
Canadian Shield
• Wrapped around Hudson Bay in a horseshoe shape
• Hills worn by erosion and hundreds of lakes carved by glaciers
• Holds some of the oldest rock formations in North America
lakes carved by glaciers
Interior Lowlands
• Located west of the Appalachian Mountains and east of the Great Plains
• Rolling flatlands with many rivers, broad river valleys, and grassy hills
Great Plains
• Located west of Interior Lowlands and east of the Rocky Mountains
• Flat land that gradually increases in elevation westward; grasslands
Rocky Mountains
• Located west of the Great Plains and east of the Basin and Range
• Rugged mountains stretching from Alaska almost to Mexico; high elevations
• Contains the Continental Divide, which determines the directional flow of rivers
Continental Divide
determines the directional flow of rivers
Basin and Range
• Located west of Rocky Mountains and east of the Sierra Nevadas and the Cascades
• Area of varying elevations containing isolated mountain ranges and Death Valley, the lowest point in North America
Coastal Range
• Rugged mountains along the Pacific Coast that stretch from California to Canada
• Contains fertile valleys
What are the major bodies of water in the United States
• Oceans: Atlantic, Pacific
• Rivers: Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, Columbia, Colorado, Rio Grande
• Lakes: Great Lakes
• Gulf: Gulf of Mexico
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
provided access to other areas of the world.
Atlantic Ocean
served as the highway for explorers, early settlers, and later immigrants.
Ohio River
Gateway to the West
• Inland port cities
grew in the Midwest along the Great Lakes.
• The Mississippi and Missouri Rivers
the transportation arteries for farm and industrial products. They were links to ports and other parts of the world.
• The Columbia River
explored by Lewis and Clark.
• The Colorado River
explored by the Spanish.
• The Rio Grande
forms the border with Mexico.
• The Pacific Ocean
an early exploration route.
• The Gulf of Mexico
provided the French and Spanish with exploration routes to Mexico and other parts of America.
Inuit
inhabited present-day Alaska and northern Canada. They lived in Arctic areas where the temperature is below freezing much of the year.
Kwakiutl
inhabited the Pacific Northwest coast, characterized by a rainy, mild climate.
Sioux
inhabited the interior of the United States, called the Great Plains and characterized by dry grasslands.
Pueblo
inhabited the Southwest in present-day New Mexico and Arizona, where they lived in desert areas and areas bordering cliffs and mountains.
Iroquois
inhabited northeast North America, the Eastern Woodland, which is heavily forested.
How did geography and climate affect the way American Indian (First American) groups met their basic needs?
The American Indians (First Americans) fished, hunted, and harvested crops for food. Clothing was made from animal skins and plants. Their shelter was made of resources found in their environment (e.g., sod, stones, animal skins, wood).
Motivating forces for exploration
• Economic—Gold, natural resources, and trade
• Religious—Spread of Christianity
• Competitions for empire and belief in superiority of own culture
Obstacles to exploration
• Poor maps and navigational tools
• Disease/starvation
• Fear of unknown
• Lack of adequate supplies
Accomplishments of exploration
• Exchanged goods and ideas
• Improved navigational tools and ships
• Claimed territories (see individual countries below)
– Francisco Coronado
claimed southwest United States for Spain.
– Samuel de Champlain
established the French settlement of Quebec
– Robert La Salle
claimed the Mississippi River Valley.
– John Cabot
explored eastern Canada.
• The Portuguese
made voyages of discovery along West Africa
• Spanish
– Conquered and enslaved American Indians (First Americans)
– Brought Christianity to the New World
– Brought European diseases
• French
– Established trading posts
– Spread Christian religion
• English
– Established settlements and claimed ownership of land
– Learned farming techniques from American Indians (First Americans)
– Traded
Areas of cooperation between explorers and American Indians
• Technologies (transportation of weapons and farm tools)
• Trade
• Crops
Areas of conflict between explorers and American Indians
• Land
• Competition for trade
• Differences in cultures
• Disease
• Language difference
Ghana, Mali, and Songhai
became powerful by controlling trade in West Africa.
• Roanoke Island
(Lost Colony) was established as an economic venture.
Jamestown
The first permanent English settlement in North America (1607 was an economic venture by the Virginia Company
• Plymouth colony
was settled by separatists from the Church of England who wanted to avoid religious persecution.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Massachusetts Bay Colony was settled by the Puritans for the religious reasons
• Pennsylvania
was settled by the
Quakers, who wanted to have freedom to practice their faith without interference
• Georgia
was settled by people who had been in debtor’s prisons in England. They hoped to experience a new life in the colony and to experience economic freedom in the New World.
Geography and climate
New England colonies
– Appalachian Mountains, Boston harbor, hilly terrain, rocky soil, jagged coastline
– Moderate summers, cold winters
Geography and climate
Mid-Atlantic colonies
– Appalachian Mountains, coastal lowlands (harbors and bays, wide and deep rivers), rich farmlands
– Moderate climate
Geography and climate
Southern colonies
– Appalachian Mountains, Piedmont, Atlantic Coastal Plain, good harbors, rivers
– Humid climate
New England colonies economy
– Fishing, shipbuilding industry and naval supplies, trade and port cities
– Skilled craftsmen, shopkeepers
New England colonies social
– Village and church as center of life
– Religious reformers
New England colonies political
– Town meetings
Mid-Atlantic economic
– Livestock and grain, trading
– Unskilled and skilled workers and fishermen
Mid-Atlantic social life
– Villages and cities
– Varied and diverse lifestyles
– Diverse religions
Mid-Atlantic colonies political
– Market towns
Souther colonies economy
– Large farms/plantations, cash crops, wood products, small farms
– Slavery
Southern colonies social life
– Plantations (slavery), mansions, indentured servants, few cities, few schools
– Church of England
Southern Colonies political
– Counties
Large landowners
• Lived predominately in the South
• Relied on indentured servants and/or slaves for labor
• Were educated in some cases
• Had rich social culture
Farmers
• Worked the land according to the region
• Relied on family members for labor
Artisans
• Worked as craftsmen in towns and on the plantation
• Lived in small villages and cities
women
• Worked as caretakers, house-workers, homemakers
• Could not vote
• Had few chances for an education
Indentured servants
• Consisted of men and women who did not have money for passage to the colonies and who agreed to work without pay for the person who paid for their passage
• Were free at the end of their contract
Slaves
• Were captured in their native Africa and sold to slave traders, then were shipped to the colonies where they were sold into slavery
• Were owned as property for life with no rights
• Were often born into slavery (Children of slaves were born into slavery.)
How did England impose its economic control over the colonies?
• England imposed strict control over trade.
• England taxed the colonies after the French and Indian War.
• Colonies traded raw materials for goods.
How did England impose its political control over the colonies?
• Colonists had to obey English laws that were enforced by governors.
• Colonial governors were appointed by the king or by the proprietor.
• Colonial legislatures made laws for each colony and were monitored by colonial governors.