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21 Cards in this Set

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What is DNA replication
when DNA is copied into two identical copies before cell division.
With what enzyme is a new DNA strand made with?
DNA Polymerase
What is step one in DNA synthesis?
unzipping DNA molecule down the center breaking hydrogen bonds
In step one what enzyme unwinds the DNA?
Helicase
what does single strand binding protein do?
SSBP acts in step one of the process and it rebonds and stabilizes single DNA strands
what is step two in DNA synthesis?
Adding a primer
What enzyme is used to add a primer for step two?
Primase adds the short RNA primer to begin complimentary strand.
What is step 3 in DNA rep.?
Elongation
What enzyme is used in step three?and how does it work?
DNA Polymerase now can attach to primer and elongate the complimentary strand.
What is step 4?
the primer is removed by RNase enzyme and Polymerase fills in hole where primer was.
What is the final step 5?
Ligate fragments which means DNA ligase seals the gaps between where the end of the primer was and the newly formed strand.-bonds okazaki fragments
What is the leading strand?
the leading strand is on top and smoothly continous creation of complimentary strand.
Whats the lagging strand?
the bottom strand which due to the direction problem isn;t real good for continous synthesis of DNA.
what are okazaki fragments?
short stretches of DNA on the lagging strand
what are mutations?
mutations alter dna, a change in the dna sequence, can be harmful, beneficial or have no effect.
what is base pair mismatch or base substitution mutation also known as point mutations?
when one base pair changes to a different base pair.
how does ionizing radiation affect DNA?
causes formation of ions that can react with nucleotides and deoxyribose phosphate backbone which can lead to DNA to breakdown and cause mutations.
what does nonionizing radiation cause to DNA?
causes hydrogen bonds to break when pyrimidine nucleotides are side by side, and joins them together instead of their complimentary nucleotide.
what kind of problems arise from nonionizing radiation on DNA?
causes problems with DNA replication and protein production.
what is the spontaneous mutation rate?
it replicates base pairs in 1 in 10^9 or 1 in 10^6 in replicated genes.
mutagens increase mutation rate to?
1 in 10^5 replicated base pairs and or 1 in 10^3 replicated gene.