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20 Cards in this Set

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Joints:
Structural classification:
1.
2.
3.
Fibrous- immovalbe or slightly movable
cartilagenous- " "
synovial- freely movable
1.F
2.C
3.S
Fibrous Joints:
connected by fibrous connective tissue with no joint cavity
Sutures of fibrous joints:
I.Found where?
II.Connects what?
III.long or short?
IV.what is synostoses?
I.in joints of skull only till middle age
II. zig zag bones edges by connective tissue fibers that are continuous w/ periosteum.
III. Short
IV. completely immovable bony junctions-not joints anymore.
Syndesmoses
A. connected by...
B. what does length indicate?
C. examples:
A. bands of connective tissue (ligaments)
B. dictates if any movement allowed.
C. Tibiofibular (short, barely moveable), Interosseous membrane between radius and ulna(broad ligament with long fibers, allows pronation)
Gomphoses
what are they? (this is easy!)
Teeth!!! nail in soket with short fiberous connections (periodontal ligament)
gliding
one flat surface slips over another.
ex: intercarpal and intertarsal joints, intervertebral joints.
Angular movements
changing angle of one bone relative to another in one plane
Flexion/Extension

Hyper means?
decrease/increase angle in sagittal plane

hyper means beyond natural position
dorsiflexion/ plantar flexion
for feet only
abduction/ adduction
away from/ toward the midline in frontal plane
inversion/eversion
for feet only- sole turns medially/laterally at ankle
circumduction
hips and shoulders primarily

makes cone w/ a limb (distal end draws circle. )
Rotation
turning a bone on its long axis.
ex: atlas on axis, hips, shoulders
supination/pronation
uncrossing/crossing radius from over ulna/
protraction/ retraction
mandible only- anterior & posterior movement in horizontal plane
elevation/ depression
superior and inferior movements in sagittal plane

ex: shrugging shoulders and chewing
opposition
only carpometacarpal joint of thumb (due to saddle joint) allows thumb to contact each finger tip
Plane joints
flat articular surfaces that glide on one another only

ex: intervertebrals, intercarpals, intertarsals
hinge joints
a cylinder-shaped process fits in a wrench-shaped holder; allows flexion/extension only

ex: elbow, interphalangeal joints
pivot joints
rounded head of a bone fits in a sleeve of bone and/or ligaments that allows it to rotate only

ex: atlas on dens, proximal radioulnar joint.