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89 Cards in this Set

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Which one is classified as a heterotroph?

a. algae
b. minerals
c. plants
d. mushrooms
d. mushrooms
In trophic structures, as omnivores humans are
primary and secondary consumers
in general biomes are
climax communities
What is the nutritional relationship among producers and consumers in an ecosystem?
trophic structure
What is ecology?
study of relationships between organisms and the living and non-living factors in their environment
Population
group of organisms of the SAME SPECIES that live in one area during a specific time
Community
all biotic, the combination of all the populations living in an area and interacting with eachother
Ecosystem
the living community and its environment
Abiotic factors are?
non living componenets
Biotic Factors
all of the living organisms in an ecosystem
Biosphere
the portion of earth where life exists
to be organic?
needs to contain carbon and hydrogen
an ecosystem is a self sustaining unit if the following conditions are met (2)
1. relatively constant source of energy
2. organic and inorganic nutrients need to be recycled
What two things do plants use for photsynthesis?
h20 and co2
Autotroph
organisms that can synthesize food from inorganic molecules
Heterotrophs
organisms which cannot synthesize food
Heterotrophs are dependent on?
other organisms for food
4 types of heterotrophs
1. Saprophytes / Decomposer
2. Herbivores
3. Carnivores
4. Omnivores
What are saprophytes/decomposers?
organisms that act as decomposers by absorbing nutrients from dead organic matter
ex: mushrooms fungi
What are herbivores?
plant eaters
ex: rabbits deer
What are carnivores?
eat other animals
What are the two types of carnivores?
predators and scavengers
what are predators?
hunt and kill other animals for food
what are scavengers?
search out already dead or already dying organisms for food
What are omnivores?
eat both plants and animals
ex: many humans
Food chain?
involves the transfer of energy from green plants through a series of organisms with repeated stages of eating or being eaten
What is the first step of the food chain?
Producers
Producers are also called?
autotrophs
Producers are on what trophic level?
First trophic level
the second trophic level is the ?
Primary consumers
Primary consumers are also called?
heterotrophs
primary consumers/heterotrophs are ?
organisms that consume producers
Secondary consumers are also called?>
heterotrophs
secondary consumers consume
primary consumers
What trophic level are secondary consumers?
3rd trophic level
Decomposers are also called?
heterotrophs
decomposers come at ?
the end of every food chain
decomposers are on what trophic level?
no designated trophic level
A food web is?
many interconnected food chains in an ecosystem, non linear
Ecological pyramids
illustrate relationship between producers and consumers by indicating the decrease in numbers, biomass, or energy at each trophic level
What does the 10% rule mean? (2 things)
90% of energy is lost (as heat) as you move up each level of the pyramid

only 10% is maintained for further use
Symbiotic relationships are when?
different types of organisms live together in a close relationship (different species)
The ______ refers to the smaller participant
symbiont
The host is the ____ part of the relationshio
host
What are the 3 types of symbiotic relationships?
Commensalism, Mutualism, Parasitism
What is commensalism?
symbiont (smaller) benefits, host is neither helped or harmed
Mutualism is?
both symbiont and host benefit ex: birds on rhinos ( birds eat bugs on rhinos, clean rhino nourished bird)
What is Parasitism?
the symbiont benefits, the host is harmed
ex: fleas on dogs
In the carbon cycle, _______, ________, and ______ are cycled by the processes of ______ and __________
in the carbon cycle, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are cycled by the processes of respiration and photosynthesis
in the carbon cycle, the?
carbon and hydrogen in glucose react with the oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water
the formula for glucose is?
C6 H12 O6
when the carbon and hydrogen in glucose react with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water, the formula is what?
C6 H12 O6 + O2 --> CO2 H2O
Photosynthesis is when?
H2O and CO2 with the energy from the sun are combined to form glucose and oxygen
when H2O and CO2 with the energy from the sun are combined to form glucose and oxygen the formula is ?
H2O + CO2 + SUN --> O2 +C6 H12 O6
The water cycle is vital to?
all living things
The water cycle is a primary?
limiting factor within any ecosystem --> the amount of water is directly related to the amount of life
What are the 6 processes that the water cycle involves?
Photosynthesis
Precipitaiton
Evaporation
Condensation
Respiration
Transpiration
What is precipitation?
when liquid water falls- snow, rain, etc
What is evaporation?
liquid water becomes water vapor
What is condensation?
when water vapor becomes liquid water
What is transpiration?
the evaporation of water from the leaves of a plant, *type of evap*
phosperous is part of ?
DNA
Nitrogen is necessary for the production of ?
protein
protein is an ?
essential building block of all living things
Nitrogen cycle
1. decomposers and other soil bacteria break down and convert nitrogeneous wastes into materials used by autotrophs
Biome is a type of ?
climax community ecosystem forms in geographic regions of similar climatic conditions
two types of biomes?
land (terrestrial) water (aquatic)
Land biomes are characterized by?
climax vegetation in the region
What are the 5 determining factors of what types of plants are in land biomes?
precipitation
light
altitude
lattitude
temperature
What biome do we live in?
Temperate Deciduous Forest
What does temperate mean?
seasons (hot summers cold winters)
what is decid and how does it related to our biome?
decid- to cut off: our primary vegetation in our biome are trees- leaves fall off of trees
Aquatic and Water Biomes represent..?
the largest ecosystems on earth
___% of the earths surface is covered by?
70 water
which are more stable land are water?
water
what are the 3 factors affecting the kinds and number of organisms in water biomes?
1. dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide (nutrients) from respiration and photosynthesis
2. temperature
3. light
Primary succession begins in?
virtually lifeless soil
The soil is not yet?
filled with nutrients needed to cycle through self-sustaining ecosystem
What is an example of primary succession?
volcanic island
What is an example of primary succession?
volcanic island
What are pioneer species?
first organisms settling in
pioneer species must be (2 things)
very simple organisms
live off new materials
What do pioneer species do to the environment?
modify the environment so more complex organisms can settle
what are the 2 ways that pioneer species modify the environment >
add nutrients
modify soil--- from bacteria to a full ecosystem takes verrrrry long time
Secondary Succession occurs where?
an existing community has been cleared by some disturbance
The soil is still ____ meaning that all _____ are still there
intact, processes (nitrogen carbon water)
Pioneer species are more complex in secondary or primary succession?
secondary succession
Climax Community is the end of _______, and contintues until?
succession, a catastrophe or a change alters or destroys it
each biome is a different?
climax community