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50 Cards in this Set

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Attack Ads and Negative Campaigns
Ads which have the purpose of harming or smearing the opponent. Negative campaigns try to highlight the negative aspects of their opponent.
BCRA of 2002
Soft Money Ban
Raised limits on individual contributions
Limits on issue ads (period before an election)
McConnnell vs. FEC, 2003
Upheld most of the provisions of the BCRA.
FEC vs. Wisconsin Right to Life Inc. 2007
Ruled that issue ads could not be limited before an election.
Bundling
Bundling checks of individual donors together (usually in an organized event) to support a candidate.
Campaign Finance Reform
The effort to change the role of money in elections.
Candidates' Image
How the candidates are portrayed in the media and their support.
Candidates' use of the media
Mudslinging:
Negative Accusations "slung" at opponents.

Leaking Information: The deliberate or accidental leaking of information to try to spark popular interest.

Sound bites: Short sound clips that the media uses to provide a very vague description of one's idea.

Image Building: Doing something to raise one's image (i.e. standing in a classroom, working to clean up garbage. etc.
)

Seeking Contributions:
Candidates will use the media to seek financial support for their campaign.
Buckley vs. Valeo
Supreme Court ruled that donating to candidates is a part of your 1st amendment rights.
FECA 1971/1974
Increased disclosure of donations and created the Federal Election Comission.
Fairness Doctrine
A policy of the FCC that required the owners of broadcast licenses to present controversial issues in a fair and balanced way.
527 groups
A group created to influence elections and are not regulated by the FEC.
FEC
A commission to regulate campaign finances.
Front-runner
Which candidate is ahead in the polls, money, etc.
Hard Money
Documented, limited contributions
Soft Money
Undocumented, unlimited contributions
Honeymoon Period
First few months in which the newly inaugurated president enjoys positive media attention.
Horse Race
The media's focus on whose ahead in the race.
Independent Expenditures
To assist a candidate without affiliation with the candidate.
Interest Groups: Economic
Business: Exercise considerable political influence (money). Corporate power!

Trade Associations: Businesses with similar interests join together to form trade associations. Divided into large nationwide associations like the chamber of commerce

Labor:
Represent workers

Professional Associations:
Strong unions made up of professional people.
Interest Groups: Ideological
Behave like economic interest groups, but they may not be driven by a desire to make money.
Interest Groups: Public Interest
Claim that they promote the public interest. a specific type is , i.e, a tax exempt charity.
Interest Groups: Foreign Policy
Groups that organize to promote or oppose certain foreign policies.
Interest Groups Methods
Lobbying for Bureaucracy, electoral support to Congress. Iron Triangle
AMA
American Medical Association:
Lobbying
Sierra Club
Environmentalism
Mass Mailing
Mass Mobilization
Lobbying
Litigation
AARP
American Association of Retired People

Lobbying
NRA
National Rifle Association

Lobbying
Mass Mailing
Litigation
NOW
National Organization of Women
Mass Mailing
Mobilization
NAM
National Association of Manufacturers

Lobbying
NAACP
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

Mass Mailing
Mass Moilization
Litigation
Iron Triangle
The relationship between the bureaucracy, the legislative branch, and interest groups in the process of law making.
Issue Ads
Ads that don't mention to vote for the candidate, but imply that they should be voted for.
Kennedy-Nixon Debates
Kennedy looked much better on TV, but Nixon did better as a speaker as radio audiences thought Nixon won, while TV audiences believed Kennedy won.
Labor Unions
A union of workers that work to improve their work conditions, salary, or hours, etc.
Open Shop
You can get the job even if you're not a member of the labor union.
Closed Shop
You must be a member in the labor union to be able to join a closed shop job.
Free-Rider
You get the benefits of a labor union without having to be in one.
Lobbying/Lobbyist
A person who is employed by an interest group and tries to influence policy decisions and positions in the executive and legislative branches.
Media Bias
Journalists tend to be liberal while CEOs and editors are conservative; CEOs can decide what to report on.
Media
Coverage Focus:
Focus on what they choose to broadcast

Politicians will schedule media events to try to improve their image.

Photo opportunities are a great opportunity for politicians to improve (or worsen) their image

Conglomerates
Large, interweaved businessess
PAC
Political Action Committees
PACs are limited in how much they can donate to candidates, but they can raise money via bundling.
Media Consultant
Someone who is hired by companies or politicians to gather positive attention (by press releases, etc.)
Political Socialization
How one comes to acquire their political beliefs.
Public Opinion
The approval or disapproval of issues, domestic or foreign, by the public.
Political Socialization
How one comes to acquire their political beliefs.
Revolving Door
When one goes from working for the government to working for an interest group or business.
Spin
When candidates spin the facts, so that the positive facts about him are shown and the negative aspects of the candidate's opponent is revealed.
Quid Pro Quo
To give money for an election in order to receive political support or legislation
TV
C-SPAN