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26 Cards in this Set

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What is the definition of growth
Growth is something that can be measured in numbers.

Growth is a proliferation of cells- illustrated by an increase in size or body mass as infants progress from infants to adolescents. Limited to the actual physical growth period.
Blank------is the expression of an individual's own time table (i.e when a man starts to lose his hair, when a baby gets her first tooth.
Maturation.

Maturation is defined as the inate contributions to development- the emergence of genetic potential.

Maturation is not just about size but also about the quality. Think about "What can the part(s) do now that it has matured?
What is Development and how long does it last?
Development is a continuous process that changes function from a lower to a higher state of complexity.

This process begins at conception and continues until death.
What has a major influence on development? Internal Factors or External factors?
Both.

Development occurs not only as a result of physical changes but also because of environmental influences.

Interaction among family, community, social, and cultural contexts shapes development and defines functional roles and tasks.
What is considered the development age/chrono age of:

Neonate
Infancy
Childhood- Early(preschool)
Late (preadolescence)
Neonate- birth to 4 weeks
Infancy- Birth to 1 year
Childhood (Early)- 1 year to 6 years
Childhood (late) 6-10 years
What is the development age for
Adolescence male
Adolescence female
Young adult
Middle Adult
Other Adult
Adolescence male- 10/12-20y.o
Adolescence female- 10/12-18y.o
Young adult- 18-40
Middle Adult-40-60y.o
Other Adult
What has major influence on motor development?
INTERACTIONISM: both heredity and environment influence development.
How is growth assessed.
Growth is something that can be measured numerically.

Height
Weight
Breadth
Head Circumference
What is motor development?
Sequential, continuous, age-related process in which a person progresses form simple, unorganized and unskilled movement to achieve highly organized, complex motor skills and the refinement of skills that accompanies aging.

Motor development is about learning to use the body.

It is not necessarily age related.

It is related to the average ages that skills are acquired.
How much movement in newborns is voluntary?
None, it is all involuntary movement based on stimulus and response.
Principals of motor development.

What is Cephalad to Caudal?
This means that development of motor control precedes in the direction from the head to the foot.

ex. Shoulder before fingers. Hip before knee, etc.
Principals of motor development:

Display and understanding of Automatic to Voluntary
Movement progresses from a reflexive or automatic level to a voluntary level under conscious control. For example, the newborn reflexively grasps a finger inserted into it's palm. During the first 6 months the grasp reflex is integrated and a voluntary grasp emerges.
What is integration?
Integration is the gradual "disappearance" of a reflex, presumablt due to the maturation of neural areas (UMN/Myelin has formed/cortex connected to brainstem) that gradually exert inhibitory control over more primitive behaviors. As neural control becomes more inhibitory, actions become more voluntary.
Display and understanding about the movements of an infant.
(PPT Slide)
Movements are automatic and elicited by a stimulus; not under conscious control.

Are mediated by the subcortical centers of the brain.

Subcortical- lower than cortex.
Hierarchy of the Nervous System. What reflexes are associated with these areas?

Cortex
Mid-Brain
Brain Stem
Spinal Cord
Cortex - Equilibrium
Mid-Brain- Righting
Brain Stem- Postural
Spinal Cord- Phasic or Spinal Cord Reflexes
Complete the sentence.

Early Movements in infants are (blank) and controlled by the (blank)
Early movements in infants are (reflexive) and controlled by the (spinal cord)
What are characteristics of Primitive Reflexes?
-Involuntary
-Automatic and stimulus specific
-Total patterns of flexion or extension

-Normally seen in the first few months. As the CNS matures, the reflexes diminish or integrated when the higher brain takes over.

-Influenced by environmental factors (behavioral state, body position)

-Standard method for assessing the integrity of the neuromotor maturity
-Primitive reflexes that persist beyond the appropriate time can be an indication of a CNS immaturity that may occur w/developmental delays
When are primitive reflexes/spinal reflexes present?
At birth
At 2 months (approx.) what four primitive reflexes should integrate?

*Not 2-5 months
Flexor Withdrawal
Crossed Extension
Automatic Stepping
Galant
What primitive reflex integrates around 2-5 months?
traction
What primitive reflex integrates between 5-6 months?
moro
What primitive reflex is persistent?
Startle
What are the approx. integration times for the palmer/plant grasp?
4-6 months palmer
9 months plantar

Side note: Ulnar 8
Radial 9
Pinch 10
Which primitive response is not present at birth?
landau
What are the characteristics of brainstem reflexes?
-Elicited by change in head position
-Affect changes in muscle tone throughout the body
-Normally present at birth to 4-6 months
-Persisting beyond 6 months may indicate a delay in the maturation of the CNS.
What primitive reflex goes away at one month?
Placing