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25 Cards in this Set

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a drug that produces a response
Agonist
drugs that block responses
Antagonist
- related to absorption, it is the percentage of the administered drug dose that reaches systemic circulation.
- IV drugs have 100 % bioavailability.
- Oral meds are lower normally 40- 60 %.
Bioavailability
allows for only fat-soluble medications to pass into the brain and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)
Blood-brain barrier
when a drug, such as a tablet, disintegrates into small particles to dissolve in a liquid.
Dissolution
The process by which the drug becomes available to body fluids and body tissues.
Distribution
substances administered to people for the diagnosis, cure, treatment, mitigation, or prevention of disease.
Drug
- Is categorizes by Generic, Chemical and Trade names.
- Prescription and Nonprescription (OTC).
- Chemical indication (ex: Analgesic- pain and Antipyretic-fever).
- Body system upon which they act (ex: CNS medications and CV medications)
Drug Classification
- Legal regulation of drugs.
- Monitors and regulates the manufacturer and marketing of drugs Drug development and sale.
- Investigational medications and informed consent.
- Pregnancy Categories.
- Controlled Substances - DEA (Drug Enforcement Agency).
- Drug Classification.
- Takes about 11 years and over a million dollars for a drug to get approved to the market.
FDA
- Mechanism whereby drugs are absorbed across the intestinal wall and enter the hepatic portal circulation.
- A large number of oral drugs are rendered inactive by hepatic metabolic reactions.
(pertains to Bioavailability)
First Pass effect- (hepatic first pass effect)
-(t½ ) the time it takes for one half of the drug concentration to be eliminated.
- Some drugs take minutes others take days.
- Digoxin has a very long half-life (36 hours)
Half-life- (Elimination)
the drugs the hospital stocks/uses
Hospital Formulary
a large initial dose that is used when an immediate response is desired to reach the drugs minimum effective concentration (MEC)
Loading dose
The process of chemically converting a drug to a form that is usually more easily removed from the body
Metabolism
how drugs are made (the drug recipe book)
National Formulary (NF)
can have an affect on multiple systems and parts of the body
Nonspecific Drug
the effect of a drug action that varies from a predicted drug response because of genetic factors or hereditary influence
Pharmacogenetics
the study the effects of chemical substances on living tissue
Pharmacology
- as drugs are distributed in plasma, they are bound to different degrees.
- The portion of the drug that is bound, it is inactive because it is not available to receptors.
- The portion of the drug that is unbound is the free, active drug
Plasma protein binding
means that a client is taking many medications, prescribed or not, in an attempt to treat several disorders simultaneously
Polypharmacy
- Provides an exact description of the medications composition and molecular structure.
- Describes the drugs chemical structure (rarely used in practice)
Chemical name
- The official name of the drug, this name is not owned by any drug company and is universally acceptable (most drugs are ordered by their generic name)
Generic name
The name that is listed in official publications
Official name
The name under which the manufacturer markets the medication (usually is a registered trademark)
Trade or brand name
refers to the effect of a patient’s age, gender size, body composition, and other variables such as ethnicity with associated changes in how an individual absorbs or metabolizes specific drugs
Drug Polymorphism