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47 Cards in this Set

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serbia, greece, bulagria took macedonia from teh ottomans in 1912. serbia the fought bulgaria in the second balkan war. austira intervened to stop the war
balkan wars
ultra nationalist serbian society. secretly supported by members of teh serbian govt
black hand
forced recruitmen into the the army to meet the needs of war
conscription
1887-1922
last emperor of austria abdicated 1918. the next day austria was declared a republic as was hungary
charles I
britain gained control of egypt. france gained control of morocco. not a written alliance, only an agreement. basically against germany
entente cordial
heir to teh austrain hungarian throne. was assasinated in sarajeva. started world war 1
archduke franz ferdinand
british prime minister. combated the growing german submarine menace by forcing the adoption of the convoy system. at paris peace conference in 1919, he excersized a moderating influence on both the harsh demands of georges clemenceau adn the idealistic proposals of woodrow wilson
david lloyd george
not becoming involved in global or regional events
isolationism
french general led the french at the battle of marme
joseph joffre
germany
dismissed bismarck in 1890. did not renew bismarcks treaty with russia and 'forced' russia to look for another ally- france.
kaiser wilhelm II
william II sent kruger of transvaal a congratulatory telegram upon hearing of the failure of the jamison raid. alerted britain of the dangers from germany
kruger telegram
believed in marx socialism
1 believed capitalism must be destroyed
2 a social revolution was possible in backwards russia
3 the need for highly trained workers controlled by revolutionaries like himself
v.i.lenin
allies worked out teh terms of peace with germany, 1919. precursor to teh united nations
league of nations
sunk in 1915 by a german submarine 139 americans killed. forced germany to stop submarine warfare
lusitania
a major french victory against the invading german army at the start of WWI. in reality lost germany the war
battle of marne
1911.
after the french recieved morocco, germany demanded an international conference. german bullying forced engladn and france closer. germany gained nothing
morocco crisis
the last tsar. wanted supreme rule of army and govt. led armies to defeat. forced to abdicate in 1917 by the durma
nicholas II
the assassin of archduke Francis ferdinand of austria. member of black hand
gavrilo princip
treaty between bolsheviks and germans to get russians out fo the war.
1. russia lost 1/3 of her population.
2. height of german success in WWI. signed by lenin
treaty of brest-lotovsk
negotiated by the big three, germany was stripped of colonies. alsace and lorraine were given back to france. poland was reconstituted as a state. pollish corridor would split prussia from germany. the saar region would be french teritory for 15 years. heavy repurcussions (not specified until later.
treaty of versaille
1916 german assault on teh french fortress. turned into a battle of attrition. france won.
battle of verdun
1914
great britain, france, adn russia
triple entente
president wilson's peace proposal in 1918 stresed national self-determintation and the rights of small countries. freedom of the seas and free trade
wilsons fourteen points
german zimmerman sent a telegram to teh german minister in mexico city telling him to promise the mexican president german help if mexico went to war with the US. the telegram was intercepted and decoded by the britis. shocked the americn public
simmerman telegram
issued by the petrograd soviet stripped offices of their authority adn placed the power in the hands of electe commitees of common soldiers
army order #1
secret police set up by lenin. arrested enemies of the revolution
heka
headed the provisional govt in 1917. refused to redistribute confiscated land holdings to teh peasantry. thought fighting the war was a national duty.
alexander kerensky
wanted to be the saviour of russia. tried to stage a coup d'etat. demanded the resignation of all ministers. kerensky ordered him to turn over command. but soldiers refused to follow him
general kornilov
rebellion of previously loyal soldiers at teh naval base. supressed by the military. after the revolution, lenin introduced the NEP
kronstadt revolt
meaning 'minority in russian', the party was formed n 1903 from a split ni the russial social democratic labour party (RSDLP) which created the bolsheviks adn mensheviks parties. they believed socialism should only be achieved firstly through a burgeois revolution
mensheviks
peasant village assembly reponsible to teh govt.
mir
issued in russia because of teh fear of a eneral strike. granted full civil rights and a popular parliament-duma
october manifesto
lenin's slogan in the revolution. peace from war, land for the peasants, food for all
peace, bread and land
a radical order of teh petrograd soviet that strippe officers of tehir authority adn placed power in teh hands of elected commitees of common soldiers
army order no. 1
an ultranationalist serbian society whose members assassinated the archduke ferdinand and his wife sophie, starting the third balkan war
black hand
majority group. lenins camp of the russian party of marxian socialism
bolsheviks
the reestablished tsarist secret police which hunted down adn executed thousands of real or supected foes, sowing fear and silencing opposition
cheka
a freely elected assembly promised by the bolsheviks, but permenantly disbanded one day under lenin's orders after the bolchseviks won less than one fourth of the votes.
constituent assembly
a permenant international organization established during the peace conference in paris in jan 1919 designed to protect members from agression adn avert further wars
league of nations
the vritish passanger liner sunk by a german submarine that claimed one thousand lives
lusitania
a huge fluctuating mass meeting of two thousand to three thousand workers, soldiers, and socialist intellectuals, modeled ont eh revolutionary soviets of 1905
petrograd society
a conservative alliance which linked the monarchs of austria-hugary, germany and russia against radical movements
three nations league
in each country during WWI a govt of national unity which began to plan and control economic and social life in order to make the greatest possible military effort
total war
treaty by which germany's army was limited to 100,000 men adn germany was declared responible for the war and therefore had to pay reperations equal to all civilian damages caused by the war
treaty of versailles
fighting behind rows of trenches, mines, adn barbed wire. the cost in lives was staggering and gains in territory minimal
trench warfare
the applicaqtion of the total war concept to a civil conflict. the bolsheviks seized grain from peasants, introduced rationing, nationalized all banks and industries, and required everyone to work
war communism
masterminded by walter rathenau. set up by the german govt to ration adn distribute raw materials
war raw materials board