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40 Cards in this Set

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emperor of russia. advocated moderate reforms for russia. emancipated the serfs. was assasinated.
alexander II
1867
refers to the compromise of 1867 which created the dual monarchy of austria and hungary.
ausgleich
refers to the prussian tactics brought about by otto von bismarck. his unification of germany was through a policy of blood and iron
blood and iron
endorsed the economic doctrines of the middle class. worked for a secret alliance with napoleon III against austria. worked to unite italy.
count camillo cavour
a secret society. designated to overthrow bonapartist rulers. they were liberal patriots
carbonari
a message from william I of prussia to napoleon III which brought france into the Franco Prussian war
EMS dispatch
1870-71
war between france and prussia. seen as german victory. seen as struggle of darwinism. led to prussia being most powerful european nation. instigated by bismarck. france seen as the agressor
franco-prussian war
1807-82
personified the romantic revolutionary nationalism. attempted to unify the germany
frankfurt assembly
1807-82
an italian radical who emerged as a powerful independent force in italian politics. planned to liberate the 2 kingdoms of sicily
guiseppe mazzini
pride in one's nation, group, or traditions. a desire for independence
nationalism
original napoleon's nephew. consolidated conservative govt and the ideals of nationalism
napoleon III
a movement to promote the independence of the slav people. roughly started with the congress in prague. supported by russia. led to the russo turkish war of 1877
panslavism
persecution of minorities, esp the jews in russia.
pogroms
political thory, advocated by bismarck, that national success justifies any means possible. very machiavellian.
realpolitik
volunteers in garibaldi's army
red shirts
popularly elected parliament in germany. very little power
reichstag
policy imposing russian customs and traditions on other people
russification
1864
pope pius IX denounced rationalism, socialism, and seperation of church and state
syllabus of errors
the end of the franco prussian war. alsace and lorraine given to germany
treaty of frankfurt
1815-98
prussian chancellor who engineered the unification of germany under his rule
otto von bismarck
local assemblies in russia
zemstvos
economic custom union of german states. founded in 1818 by prussia. eliminated internal tariffs
zollverein
italian period of history from 1815 to 1850
risorgimento
great german party at the frankfurt assembly. "big germans"
grossdeutsch
little german party at teh frankfurt assembly. "little germans"
kleindeutsch
idea created by by j.g.herder to identify the national character of germany, but soon passed to other countries
volksgeist
massacre of peaceful protesters at winter's square in st. petersburg in 1905 that turned ordinary workers against the Tsar and produced a wave of general indignation
Bloody sunday
british conservative. extended vote to all middle class male workers. needed to broaden aristocratic voter bse
benjamin disraeli
liberal prime minister who favored home rule for ireland
william gladstone
a divisive case in which alfred dreyfus, a jewish captain in the french army was falsely accused and tried with treason. the catholic church sided with the anti-semites against dreyfus. because of this the french gov't severed all ties between church and state.
dreyfus affair
1862 act in america that gave western land to settlers, reinforcing free labour in a market economy
homestead act
russian parliament opened in 1906, elected indirectly by universal male suffarag, but with absolute veto power from teh tsar
duma
struggle for civilization.
bismarcks attack on teh catholic church resulting from pius IX's declaration of palpable infallibility in 1870
kulturkampf
the result of a general strike in oct. 1905. granted full civil rights adn promised a popularly elected duma with real legislative power.
october manifesto
proposed after liberal party came to power in england in 1906 adn vetoed the lords. designed to increase spending on social welfare issues.
peoples budget
guerrilla army of guiseppe girabaldi who invaded sicily in 1906 in an attempt to liberate it and won the hearts of the sicilian peasantry
red shirts
popularly elected lower house of teh govt of teh new german empire after 1871
reichstag
2nd reform bill
1867
Conservatives and liberals trying to gain votes. Disraeli's conservatives extended the vote to almost 1 million more voters.
reform bill of 1867
an effort by various socialists to update marxist doctrines to reflect the realities of teh time
revisionism
result of teh discontent of russian factory workers and peasants as well as emerging nationalist sentiments among empires minorities
revolution of 1905