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56 Cards in this Set

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the part of the face or facial region in humans and certain animals that contains the nostrils and the organs of smell and functions as the usual passageway for air in respiration: in humans it is a prominence in the center of the face formed of bone and cartilage, serving also to modify or modulate the voice.
the tube or cavity, with its surrounding membrane and muscles, that connects the mouth and nasal passages with the esophagus.
Anatomy. a muscular and cartilaginous structure lined with mucous membrane at the upper part of the trachea in humans, in which the vocal cords are located.
Anatomy, Zoology. the tube in humans and other air-breathing vertebrates extending from the larynx to the bronchi, serving as the principal passage for conveying air to and from the lungs; the windpipe.
either of the two main branches of the trachea.
Any of the fine, thin-walled, tubular extensions of a bronchus.
a little cavity, pit, or cell, as a cell of a honeycomb.
Anatomy A muscular membranous partition separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities and functioning in respiration. Also called midriff.
the opening through which an animal or human takes in food.
a saclike enlargement of the alimentary canal, as in humans and certain animals, forming an organ for storing, diluting, and digesting food.
the process in the alimentary canal by which food is broken up physically, as by the action of the teeth, and chemically, as by the action of enzymes, and converted into a substance suitable for absorption and assimilation into the body.
Anatomy. a large, reddish-brown, glandular organ located in the upper right side of the abdominal cavity, divided by fissures into five lobes and functioning in the secretion of bile and various metabolic processes
gall bladder
a pear-shaped, muscular sac attached to the undersurface of the right lobe of the liver, in which bile is stored and concentrated.
A bitter, alkaline, brownish-yellow or greenish-yellow fluid that is secreted by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and discharged into the duodenum and aids in the emulsification, digestion, and absorption of fats
water absorption
The amount of water absorbed by a composite material when immersed in water for a stipulated period of time.
large intestines
Comes after the small intestine. Large because it is wider than the small intestine.
a large, reddish-brown, glandular organ located in the upper right side of the abdominal cavity, divided by fissures into five lobes and functioning in the secretion of bile and various metabolic processes.
The chamber on the left side of the heart that receives arterial blood from the left atrium and contracts to force it into the aorta.
A membranous structure in a hollow organ or passage, as in an artery or vein, that folds or closes to prevent the return flow of the body fluid passing through it.
A tuft of capillaries situated within a Bowman's capsule at the end of a renal tubule in the vertebrate kidney that filters waste products from the blood and thus initiates urine formation.
Bowman's capsule
a membranous, double-walled capsule surrounding a glomerulus of a nephron
proximal tubule
is made up of a single layer of cuboidal cells with striated borders, and functions especially in the resorption of sugar, sodium and chloride ions, and water from the glomerular filtrate called also proximal tubule
loop of henle
the part of a nephron between the proximal and distal convoluted tubules that extends, in a loop, from the cortex into the medulla of the kidney.
distal tubule
is a portion of kidney nephron between the loop of Henle and the collecting duct system.
collecting duct
The collecting duct system of the kidney consists of a series of tubules and ducts that connect the nephrons to the ureter. It participates in electrolyte and fluid balance through reabsorption and excretion, processes regulated by the hormones aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone.
a muscular duct or tube conveying the urine from a kidney to the bladder or cloaca.
a membranous sac or organ serving as a receptacle for a fluid or air
a gland, situated near the stomach, that secretes a digestive fluid into the intestine through one or more ducts and also secretes the hormone insulin.
gastric juices
Gastric juice is a strong acidic liquid, pH 1 to 3, which is close to being
colourless. The hormone gastrin is released into the bloodstream when peptides
The act or process of initiating biological reproduction by insemination or pollination
the mass of cells resulting from the cleavage of the ovum before the formation of a blastula.
a metazoan embryo in an early state of germ layer formation following the blastula stage, consisting of a cuplike body of two layers of cells, the ectoderm and endoderm, enclosing a central cavity, or archenteron, that opens to the outside by the blastopore: in most animals progressing to the formation of a third cell layer, the mesoderm.
The process by which cells or tissues undergo a change toward a more specialized form or function, especially during embryonic development.
the outer germ layer in the embryo of a metazoan.
The middle embryonic germ layer, lying between the ectoderm and the endoderm, from which connective tissue, muscle, bone, and the urogenital and circulatory systems develop
pioneer species
The first species or community to colonize or recolonize a barren or disturbed area.
temperate grassland
Temperate grasslands are composed of a rich mix of grasses and forbs and underlain by some of the world's most fertile soils. Since the development of the steel plow most have been converted to agricultural lands.
energy flow
Photosynthesis explains how energy from the sun is captured by green plants and used to make food. Most of this energy is used to carry on the plant's life activities. The rest of the energy is passed on as food to the next level of the food chain.
carbon cycle
the circulation of carbon atoms in the biosphere as a result of photosynthetic conversion of carbon dioxide into complex organic compounds by plants, which are consumed by other organisms: the carbon returns to the atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide as a result of respiration, decay by fungi, bacteria, etc., and combustion of fossil fuels.
water cycle
the natural sequence through which water passes into the atmosphere as water vapor, precipitates to earth in liquid or solid form, and ultimately returns to the atmosphere through evaporation.
ozon depletion
Ozone depletion is the result of a complex set of circumstances and chemistry
acid rain
precipitation, as rain, snow, or sleet, containing relatively high concentrations of acid-forming chemicals, as the pollutants from coal smoke, chemical manufacturing, and smelting, that have been released into the atmosphere and combined with water vapor: harmful to the environment.
the rapid depletion of plant life and the loss of topsoil at desert boundaries and in semiarid regions, usually caused by a combination of drought and the overexploitation of grasses and other vegetation by people
A treeless area between the icecap and the tree line of Arctic regions, having a permanently frozen subsoil and supporting low-growing vegetation such as lichens, mosses, and stunted shrubs.
An animal that feeds chiefly on plants.
primary consumers
Producers are organisms, like green plants, that produce organic compounds from inorganic compounds. These are also a type of autotroph. THen green plants, for example, are are eaten by consumers in this case, grazing animals like the zebra.
secondary consumers
organisms that obtain nutrients from other organisms. This is also a heterotroph.
food web
a series of organisms related by predator-prey and consumer-resource interactions; the entirety of interrelated food chains in an ecological community.
excessive nutrients in a lake or other body of water, usually caused by runoff of nutrients (animal waste, fertilizers, sewage) from the land, which causes a dense growth of plant life; the decomposition of the plants depletes the supply of oxygen, leading to the death of animal life; "he argued that the controlling factor in eutrophication is not nitrate but phosphate"
the close external resemblance of an organism, the mimic, to some different organism, the model, such that the mimic benefits from the mistaken identity, as seeming to be unpalatable or harmful.
warning coloration
a bold, distinctive pattern of color characteristic of a poisonous or unpalatable organism, as the skunk or the monarch butterfly, that functions as a warning to and defense against predators.
evolution involving a series of reciprocal changes in two or more noninterbreeding populations that have a close ecological relationship and act as agents of natural selection for each other, as the succession of adaptations of a predator for pursuing and of its prey for fleeing or evading.
logistic growth
Self-reproduction is the main feature of all living organisms. This is what distinguishes them from non-living things. Any model of population dynamics include reproduction. We will discuss two most important models of population growth based on reproduction of organisms: exponential and logistic models.
The relative heaviness of objects, measured in units of mass or weight per units of volume.
keystone species
A species whose presence and role within an ecosystem has a disproportionate effect on other organisms within the system. A keystone species is often a dominant predator whose removal allows a prey population to explode and often decreases overall diversity. Other kinds of keystone species are those, such as coral or beavers, that significantly alter the habitat around them and thus affect large numbers of other organisms.
resource partitioning
The concept of resource partitioning, as originally developed, relates to evolutionary change in species in response to selection pressures generated by interspecific competition