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50 Cards in this Set

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maltase
an enzyme that converts maltose into glucose and causes similar cleavage of many other glucosides.
lactase
an enzyme capable of hydrolyzing lactose into glucose and galactose.
phosphatases
Any of numerous enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of esters of phosphoric acid and are important in the absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates, nucleotides, and phospholipids and in the calcification of bone.
trypsin
a proteolytic enzyme of the pancreatic juice, capable of converting proteins into peptone
chymotrypsin
a proteolytic enzyme, found in pancreatic juice, that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins into polypeptides and amino acids.
lipase
any of a class of enzymes that break down fats, produced by the liver, pancreas, and other digestive organs or by certain plants.
amylase
any of a widely distributed class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of starch, glycogen, and related polysaccharides to oligosaccharides, maltose, or glucose.
zymogens
any of a group of proteins that are converted to active enzymes by partial breakdown, as by the action of an acid or other enzyme.
trypsinogen
a precursor of trypsin that is secreted by the pancreas and is activated to trypsin in the small intestine.
chymotrypsin
a proteolytic enzyme, found in pancreatic juice, that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins into polypeptides and amino acids.
peripheral nervous system
the portion of the nervous system lying outside the brain and spinal cord.
somatic
pertaining to the body wall of an animal.
autonomic
under the control of the autonomic nervous system.
parasympathetic
pertaining to that part of the autonomic nervous system consisting of nerves and ganglia that arise from the cranial and sacral regions and function in opposition to the sympathetic system, as in inhibiting heartbeat or contracting the pupil of the eye.
dendrites
A branched protoplasmic extension of a nerve cell that conducts impulses from adjacent cells inward toward the cell body. A single nerve may possess many dendrites
axon
Cell Biology. the appendage of the neuron that transmits impulses away from the cell body.
synapse
a region where nerve impulses are transmitted and received, encompassing the axon terminal of a neuron that releases neurotransmitters in response to an impulse, an extremely small gap across which the neurotransmitters travel, and the adjacent membrane of an axon, dendrite, or muscle or gland cell with the appropriate receptor molecules for picking up the neurotransmitters.
myelin sheath
a wrapping of myelin around certain nerve axons, serving as an electrical insulator that speeds nerve impulses to muscles and other effectors.
polarized
to divide into sharply opposing factions, political groups
resting potential
the potential difference between the two sides of the membrane of a nerve cell when the cell is not conducting an impulse
blastula
the early developmental stage of an animal, following the morula stage and consisting of a single, spherical layer of cells enclosing a hollow, central cavity.
gastrula
a metazoan embryo in an early state of germ layer formation following the blastula stage, consisting of a cuplike body of two layers of cells, the ectoderm and endoderm, enclosing a central cavity, or archenteron, that opens to the outside by the blastopore: in most animals progressing to the formation of a third cell layer, the mesoderm.
ectoderm
the outer germ layer in the embryo of a metazoan.
mesoderm
the middle germ layer of a metazoan embryo.
archenteron
the primitive enteron or digestive cavity of a gastrula.
blastopore
the opening of an archenteron.
agonistic
combative; striving to overcome in argument.
altruistic
of or pertaining to behavior by an animal that may be to its disadvantage but that benefits others of its kind, often its close relatives.
auditory
pertaining to hearing, to the sense of hearing, or to the organs of hearing.
survivorship
the state of being a survivor
exponential growth
development at an increasingly rapid rate in proportion to the growing total number or size; a constant rate of growth applied to a continuously growing base over a period of time
interspecific
existing or occurring between species.
partitioning
The act or process of dividing something into parts.
keystone species
A species whose presence and role within an ecosystem has a disproportionate effect on other organisms within the system. A keystone species is often a dominant predator whose removal allows a prey population to explode and often decreases overall diversity. Other kinds of keystone species are those, such as coral or beavers, that significantly alter the habitat around them and thus affect large numbers of other organisms
predation
predatory behavior.
parasitoid
an organism that practices parasitoidism.
herbivore
An animal that feeds chiefly on plants.
commensalism
a commensal organism.
cryptic coloration
coloring that conceals or disguises an animal's shape
warning coloration
a bold, distinctive pattern of color characteristic of a poisonous or unpalatable organism, as the skunk or the monarch butterfly, that functions as a warning to and defense against predators.
mimicry
the close external resemblance of an organism, the mimic, to some different organism, the model, such that the mimic benefits from the mistaken identity, as seeming to be unpalatable or harmful.
convergent evolution
the appearance of apparently similar structures in organisms of different lines of descent.
primary succession
the development of plant and animal life in an area without topsoil; the development of biotic communities in a previously uninhabited and barren habitat with little or no soil
climax community
The point of greatest intensity or force in an ascending series or progression; a culmination
savanna
a plain characterized by coarse grasses and scattered tree growth, esp. on the margins of the tropics where the rainfall is seasonal, as in eastern Africa.
taiga
the coniferous evergreen forests of subarctic lands, covering vast areas of northern North America and Eurasia.
tertiary consumers
of the third order, rank, stage, formation, etc.; third.
eutrophication
characterized by an abundant accumulation of nutrients that support a dense growth of algae and other organisms, the decay of which depletes the shallow waters of oxygen in summer.
biodiversity
diversity among and within plant and animal species in an environment.
biomagnification
the increasing concentration of toxic substances within each successive link in the food chain.