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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
• thermoregulation
• thermoregulation
the regulation of body temperature.
Respiratory System
• gill function• lung function•
• regulation
gill function•
: counter current exchange
lung function
: nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, diaphragm
: monitor blood pH
Respiratory System process
CO2 & O2 diffusion across moist membranes, red blood cells,
• O2 transported by hemoglobin (iron)
• CO2 transported as dissolved bicarbonate
Circulatory System
• open circulatory system (hemolymph) closed circulatory system (blood), 2-, 3-, 4-chambered hearts, arteries, veins, capillaries
• heart function
• atria, ventricles, valves, pulmonary circuit, systemic circuit, SA node, AV node,
systole, diastole
• blood:
RBC, WBC, platelets, plasma
N waste
ammonia, urea, uric acid
• nephron function
the filtering and excretory unit of the kidney, consisting of the glomerulus and tubules
Excretory System is made up of
N waste• nephron function
• glomerulus’s, Bowman’s capsule, proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule, collecting duct, ureter, bladder, urethra
• filtration, secretion, reabsorption
• osmoregulation: ADH (antidiuretic hormone), aldosterone
Digestive System
the system by which ingested food is acted upon by physical and chemical means to provide the body with absorbable nutrients and to excrete waste products; in mammals the system includes the alimentary canal extending from the mouth to the anus, and the hormones and enzymes assisting in digestion.
• mouth
a. the opening through which an animal or human takes in food.
b. the cavity containing the structures used in mastication.
c. the structures enclosing or being within this cavity, considered as a whole.
salivary amylase
physical breakdown
• pharynx
the tube or cavity, with its surrounding membrane and muscles, that connects the mouth and nasal passages with the esophagus.
a thin, valvelike, cartilaginous structure that covers the glottis during swallowing, preventing the entrance of food and drink into the larynx.
a muscular passage connecting the mouth or pharynx with the stomach in invertebrate and vertebrate animals; gullet.
the progressive wave of contraction and relaxation of a tubular muscular system, esp. the alimentary canal, by which the contents are forced through the system.
a saclike enlargement of the alimentary canal, as in humans and certain animals, forming an organ for storing, diluting, and digesting food.
b. such an organ or an analogous portion of the alimentary canal when divided into two or more sections or parts.
c. any one of these sections.
an enzyme, produced in the stomach, that in the presence of hydrochloric acid splits proteins into proteoses and peptones.
a viscous, slimy mixture of mucins, water, electrolytes, epithelial cells, and leukocytes that is secreted by glands lining the nasal, esophageal, and other body cavities and serves primarily to protect and lubricate surfaces.
any of various enzyme precursor molecules that may change into an enzyme as a result of catalytic change.
crystals, occurring in the gastric glands, that during digestion are converted into pepsin
digestion & absorption
proteases, maltase, lactase, phosphatases
• pancreas
trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase, amylase
• zymogens
trypsinogen chymotrypsin
gall bladder
a pear-shaped, muscular sac attached to the undersurface of the right lobe of the liver, in which bile is stored and concentrated.
bile (emulsify fats)
Physiology. a bitter, alkaline, yellow or greenish liquid, secreted by the liver, that aids in absorption and digestion, esp. of fats.
Nervous System is made up of....
• peripheral nervous system: sensory & motor neurons
• somatic
• autonomic
• sympathetic• parasympathetic• reflex arc
• neuron function
• cell body, dendrites, axon, synapse, myelin sheath, Schwann cells
• polarized, resting potential, action potential, depolarization, repolarization, hyperpolarization, refractory period
• K+, Na+, voltage-gated channels, Na-K pumps
• synapse
• neuromuscular
: epinephrine, dopamine, serotonin
acetylcholine, cholinesterase
: Ca2+ gates, neurotransmitters, ion-gated channels
: calming/slowing down effect, tranquil functions
: brain, spinal cord
: skeletal muscle
: stimulate activities
Muscle System
• skeletal, smooth, cardiac
• muscle fiber function
• sarcomere, sarcoplasm, sarcoplasmic reticulum, T-tubules, thin filaments (actin, troponin, tropomyosin), thick filaments (myosin)
• sliding-filament model
• ATP-myosin binding, Ca2+ release, Ca2+-troponin binding, myosin-actin binding, actin filaments slide
Immune System
• Non-specific barriers
• skin, anti-microbial proteins, gastric juices, symbiotic bacteria
• Non-specific patrol
• phagocytes, complement proteins, inflammatory response (histamine, vasodilation, phagocytes)
• Specific immunity
• lymphocytes, antigens, MHC (major histocompatibility complex), self vs. nonself
• B cells: antibodies (immunoglobulins), plasma cells, memory cells
• humoral response, attack circulating invaders, bone marrow
• T cells: cytotoxic T cells (killer), helper T cells
• cell-mediated response, attack infected or cancer cells
• Supplements
• antibiotics, vaccines, passive immunity
Endocrine System
• homeostasis
• blood sugar regulation, blood calcium regulation
• negative feedback, positive feedback
• neurosecretory cells
• hypothalamus, posterior pituitary (storage of ADH, oxytocin), anterior pituitary (release of TSH. ACTH, FSH, LH)
• ductless glands
• pancreas• adrenal
• gonads)
• hormones
• steroid• protein
: insulin, glucagons
: epinephrine, aldosterone
: ovaries (estrogen, progesterone), testes (testosterone)
: transcription factors
: secondary messenger
• female anatomy
: ovary, oviduct (fallopian tube), uterus, cervix, vagina, egg, corpus luteum
• oogenesis
• male: testes (sperm production), epididymis (sperm maturation), vas deferens (sperm delivery), seminal vesicles (secretions), prostate gland (secretions), penis, sperm
• spermatogenesis