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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ground tissues
parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma
dermal tissues
epidermis, cuticle
• apical root
root cap, zone of cell division, zone of elongation, zone of maturation/differentiation
secondary growth
increase in girth
lateral meristems
vascular cambium (2° xylem & 2° phloem), cork cambium (periderm & bark)
promotes plant growth, cell elongation; apical dominance
Plant Structures
• root
• epidermis, root hairs
• cortex
• endodermis, Casparian strip
• stele (vascular cylinder), xylem, phloem
• leaf
• cuticle
• upper palisade mesophyll (photosynthesis)
• lower spongy mesophyll (gas exchange), stomates, guard cells
• vascular bundle (vein), xylem, phloem
Plant Hormones
• auxin
• gibberellins
• cytokinins
.• ethylene
• epidermis
promotes plant growth, cell elongation; apical dominance
cell growth, fruit development; bigger grapes
• cytokinins:
promote cell growth (cytokinesis); apical dominance
• ethylene:
promote fruit ripening
• abscisic acid (ABA):
maintains seed & bud dormancy
• epidermis
root hairs
Alternation of Generation
• multicellular sporophyte (2n) .meiosis. spores (1n) .mitosis. multicellular gametophyte (1n) .mitosis. gametes (1n) .fertilization. multicellular sporophyte (2n)
Flowers & Seeds
• sepals, petals, anthers (pollen), pistil/carpel (egg)
• double fertilization:
• zygote (2n): new plant
• endosperm (3n): nutrition for new plant
• seed
• embryo, seed coat, endosperm, cotyledons (seed leaves), hypocotyl (embryonic stem), radicle (embryonic root)
response to gravity
Phototropism uses what hormones
• auxin & gibberellin, starch statolith plastids
• response to touch
• response to relative length of daylight & darkness, circadian rhythm
phytochrome protein
Pr, Pfr, florigen
• daylight
: Pr + red light . Pfr
• darkness
: Pfr + far-red light . Pr
• night length
resets circadian-rhythm clock
• long-day plants flower in longer days /
shorter nights, short-day plants flower in shorter days / longer nights, day-neutral are not triggered by daylight changes