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24 Cards in this Set

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ground tissue
The ground, or fundamental, tissue systems of plants consist of three types of tissue.
dermal tissues
The dermal system consists of the epidermis, or outermost layer, of the plant body. It forms the skin of the plant, covering the leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, and seeds. Epidermal cells vary greatly in function and structure.
epidermis
The process by which the anatomical structures of the epidermis are generated and organized. Morphogenesis pertains to the creation of form. The epidermis is the outer epithelial layer of a plant or animal, it may be a single layer that produces an extracellular material (e.g. the cuticle of arthropods) or a complex stratified squamous epithelium, as in the case of many vertebrate species.
cuticle
Synthesis and deposition of a noncellular, hardened, or membranous secretion from an epithelial sheet, occurring as part of the molting cycle. As in, but not restricted to, the taxon Protostomia and the roundworms
parenchyma
is found throughout the plant and is living and capable of cell division at maturity. Usually only primary walls are present, and these are uniformly thickened. The cells of parenchyma tissue carry out many specialized physiological functions—for example, photosynthesis, storage, secretion, and wound healing. They also occur in the xylem and phloem tissues.
collenchyma
Collenchyma, the second type of ground tissue, is also living at maturity and is made up of cells with unevenly thickened primary cell walls. Collenchyma tissue is pliable and functions as support tissue in young, growing portions of plants.
vascular tissue
plant tissue that is specialized for conducting sap. It comprises phloem, which conveys chiefly dissolved sugars, and xylem, which conveys water and dissolved minerals.
xylem
The process by which an organism reduces the flow of fluid within the xylem, the tissue in plants that carries water and nutrients up from the roots to the shoot and leaves, of a second organism, where the two organisms are in a symbiotic interaction.
tracheids
consists of two types of conducting cells: tracheids and vessels. Elongated cells, with tapered ends and secondary walls, both types lack cytoplasm and are dead at maturity
phloem
The directed movement of substances, into, out of or within a cell, either in a phloem tissue or in the phloem membrane
meristem growth
The increase in size or mass of a meristem, a region of tissue in a plant that is composed of one or more undifferentiated cells capable of undergoing mitosis and differentiation.
primary growth
Growth in vascular plants resulting from the production of primary tissues by a primary meristem. Elongation of the plant body is usually a consequence of primary growth.
apical root
Unspecialized plant cells that divide, near the tips of roots and shoots.
root cap
A thimble-shaped mass of cells that covers and protects the root tip
cortex
the tissue in plant stems and roots between the outer layer epidermis and the central core stele
endodermis
a layer of cells that marks the boundary between the inner core stele and outer surrounding tissue cortex of a plant root. It is also evident in the stems of some plants, notably ferns.
casparian strip
thin impervious band of material in the cell walls of some plants resembling suberin or lignin
stele
the cylindrical core of the stem and roots of a plant that contains the sap-conducting vascular tissues and varying amounts of packing tissue pith
auxin
promotes cell growth, cell elongation
Gibberellins
promotes cell growth, fruit development
apical dominance
the inhibition exerted on the growth of lateral buds by the terminal bud of a growing plant shoot
sepals
a modified leaf in the outermost whorl calyx of a flower that encloses the petals and other parts
cotyledons
the first leaf, or one of the first pair of leaves, produced by the seed of a flowering plant. They may serve as food stores, remaining in the seed at germination, or produce food by photosynthesis.
radicle
the part of a plant embryo that forms the root of the young plant. a small body part that superficially resembles the root of a plant, e.g. a branch of a nerve