Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Any of various archaea that are capable of producing methane from the decomposition of organic material.
to break something down into smaller or simpler parts, or be broken down in this way
a close association of animals or plants of different species that is often, but not always, of mutual benefit
an animal or plant living in close and often mutually beneficial association with another of a different species
a living animal or plant from which a parasite obtains nutrition.
a relationship between two organisms of different species that benefits both and harms neither. For example, lichens are a fungus and an alga living in mutualism: The fungus provides a protective structure, and the alga produces a carbohydrate as food for the fungus.
the relationship between organisms of two different species in which one derives food or other benefits from the association while the other remains unharmed and unaffected
symbiosis in which one organism lives as a parasite in or on another organism
a plant or animal that lives on or in another, usually larger, host organism in a way that harms or is of no advantage to the host
Koch's postulates
The organism must be found in all animals suffering from the disease, but not in healthy animals.
The organism must be isolated from a diseased animal and grown in pure culture.
The cultured organism should cause disease when introduced into a healthy animal.
The organism must be reisolated from the experimentally infected animal.
a highly potent soluble toxin produced by a bacterium and released into its infected host, often affecting the central nervous system. Exotoxins are produced in diphtheria, botulism, and tetanus, and are among the most potent known toxins.
a mass of tiny animals and plants floating in the sea or in lakes, usually near the surface, and eaten by fish and other water animals
a tiny single-celled sea organism with two long slender appendages flagella, occurring in large numbers in plankton. Some types are luminescent and some are toxic, especially when they multiply prolifically to cause a brownish red discoloration
a simple microscopic organism with projecting threads that thrash to help it to move along. Phylum Ciliophora.
the simplest form of reproduction, in which two single-celled organisms such as bacteria or protozoans link together, exchange genetic information, and then separate
A temporary footlike extension of a one-celled organism, such as an amoeba, used for moving about and for surrounding and taking in food
white rust
a disease of plants, characterized by pustules of white spores on affected parts that become yellow and malformed, caused by fungi of the genus Albugo
An organ or structure of attachment, especially the basal, rootlike formation by which certain seaweeds or other algae are attached to a substrate.
short hairlike filaments extending from the surface of prokaryotes
a spore formed within a cell of a rod-shaped organism.
the union of anisogametes
the sexual form of a plant in the alternation of generations.
dissimilar in shape, structure, or magnitude
the fusion of two gametes of similar form, as in certain algae.
different in ancestry, but having the same form or appearance.
one of a pair of structurally dissimilar gametes, the female gamete being large and nonmotile and the male gamete being small and motile.
the form of a plant in the alternation of generations that produces asexual spores
plasmodial slim molds
Plasmodial slime moulds or true slime moulds are a large single-celled mass with thousands of nuclei called a plasmodium. They are formed when individual flagellated cells swarm together and fuse. The result is one large bag of cytoplasm with many diploid nuclei.
cellular slime molds
spend most of their lives as separate single-celled amoeboid protists, but upon the release of a chemical signal, the individual cells aggregate into a great swarm. Cellular slime molds are thus of great interest to cell and developmental biologists, because they provide a comparatively simple and easily manipulated system for understanding how cells interact to generate a multicellular organism