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15 Cards in this Set

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Prokaryotes
An organism of the kingdom Monera (or Prokaryotae), comprising the bacteria and cyanobacteria, characterized by the absence of a distinct, membrane-bound nucleus or membrane-bound organelles, and by DNA that is not organized into chromosomes. Also called moneran.
stromatolites
A widely distributed sedimentary structure consisting of laminated carbonate or silicate rocks, produced over geologic time by the trapping, binding, or precipitating of sediment by groups of microorganisms, primarily cyanobacteria
Protobionts
A term first used by Oparin to describe the early environmentally isolated, chemical-concentrating structures from which cells are presumed to have evolved.
ribozyme
a segment of RNA that can act as a catalyst.
bacteria
ubiquitous one-celled organisms, spherical, spiral, or rod-shaped and appearing singly or in chains, comprising the Schizomycota, a phylum of the kingdom Monera (in some classification systems the plant class Schizomycetes), various species of which are involved in fermentation, putrefaction, infectious diseases, or nitrogen fixation.
archaea
Any of various single-celled prokaryotes genetically distinct from bacteria, often thriving in extreme environmental conditions.
domains
a region characterized by a specific feature, type of growth or wildlife,
domain archaea
The distinction recognizes the common traits that eukaryotic organisms share, such as nuclei, cytoskeletons, and internal membranes. Those "bacteria" that lived at high temperatures or produced methane clustered together as a group well away from the usual bacteria and the eukaryotes.
domain Bacteria
Bacteria are often maligned as the causes of human and animal disease (like this one, Leptospira, which causes serious disease in livestock). However, certain bacteria, the actinomycetes, produce antibiotics such as streptomycin and nocardicin; others live symbiotically in the guts of animals (including humans) or elsewhere in their bodies, or on the roots of certain plants, converting nitrogen into a usable form.
peptidoglycan
A polymer found in the cell walls of prokaryotes that consists of polysaccharide and peptide chains in a strong molecular network.
Gram stain
Properly Gram-stained preparations can quickly give you considerable information that can be applied immediately to patient care. The Gram stain is particularly useful in the presumptive diagnosis of bacterial meningitis, bacterial pneumonia, bacteriuria, gonorrhea, and pyogenic infections of the brain, lung, abdomen, pelvis and wounds.
Positive gram
As previously mentioned, Gram-positive bacteria are characterized by their blue-violet color reaction in the Gram-staining procedure . The blue-violet color reaction is caused by crystal-violet, the primary Gram-stain dye, complexing with the iodine mordant
negative Gram
Unlike Gram-positive bacteria, which asuume a violet color in Gram staining, Gram negative bacteria incorporate the counterstain rather than the primary stain
Capsule
a. a membranous sac or integument.
b. either of two strata of white matter in the cerebrum.
c. the sporangium of various spore-producing organisms, as ferns, mosses, algae, and fungi.
Nucleiod region
an irregularly shaped region within the cell where the genetic material is localised. The nucleic acid is a circular, double-stranded piece of DNA and multiple copies may exist. This method of genetic storage can be contrasted against that of the eukaryotes, where DNA is packed into chromosomes and sequestered within a membrane-bound organelle called the nucleus.