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200 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
stromatolite
rock made of naded domes of sdediment in which are found the most ancient forms of life: prokaryotes dating back as far as 3.5 billion years
spontaneous generation
incorrect notion that life can emerge from inanimate material
biogenesis
princple that all life arises bu the reproduction of preexisting life
ribozymes
enzymatic RNA molecule that catalyzes reactions during RNA splcing
three domain system
system of taxonomic classification based on hree basic groups: bacteria, archaea, and eukarya
domains
taxonomic category above the kingdm level. the hree domains are archaea,bacteria, nad eukarya
petidoglycan
type of polymer in bacterial cell walls consisting of modified sugars cross linked by short polypeptides
gram stain
straining method that distinguishes between two different kinds of bacterial cell walls
gram negative
group of bacteria with a stucturally more complex cell wall made of less peptidogylcan. gram positive bacteria are often more toxic than gram negative bacteria
capsule
sticky layer that surrounds the cell walls of some bacteria, protecting the cell surfae and sometimes helping to glue the cell to surfaces.
pili
surface appendage in certain bacteria that function in adherence and the transger of DNA druing conjugation
taxis
movement toward or awa form a stimulus
nucleoid region
region in a prokaryotic cell consisting of a concentrated mass of DNA
plasmids
small rind of DNA that carries accessory genes separate from those of a bacterial chromosome. also found in some eukaryots such as yeast
conjugation
in bacteria, the direct transfer of DNA between two cells that are temporarily joined
transduction
DNA transfer process used by phages to carry bacterial genes fom one host cell o another
binary fission
type of cell division b which prokaryotes reproduce
endosperms
nutrient rich tissue formed by the union of a sperm cell with two plar nuclei during doble fertilization, which provided nourishment to the developing ebryo in angiosperm seeds
antibiotic
chemical that kills bacteria or inhibits their growth
saprobes
organism that scts as a decomposed by absrbing nutrients from dead organic matter
parasites
organism that absorbs nutrients from the body fluids of living hosts
nitrogen fixation
assimilation of atmospheric nirogen by certain prokaryotes into nitrogenous compounds that can be directly used b plants
obligate aerobes
organism that requires oxygen for cellular respiration and cannot live wihtout it
anaerobic respiration
use of inoranic molecules other than oxygen to acept electrons at the downhill end of electrom transport chains
signature sequence
regions of amll subunit ribosomal rna that have uniue ncleotide suences acquired by the accumulation of mutations in the anestor of tat taxonomic group
extremophiles
microorganism hat live in exteve environments
methanogen
microorganisms that obtain energy by using carbon dioxide to oxidize hydrogen, producing metan as a wast product
extreme halophiles
microorganism that live in unusually highly salineenvironmens such as the great salt lake or the dead sea
decomposer
any of the saprotrophic fngi and bacteria that absorb nutrients form nonliving organic material such as corpses, fallen plant material, and the wasts of living organisms, and convet them into inorganic forms.
symbiosis
ecological relationship between organisms of two different specie that live together in direct contact.
host
larger participant in a symbiotic relationship, serving as home and feeding ground to the symbiont
mutualism
symbiotic relationship i which both participants benefit
commensalism
symbiotic relationship in which the symbiont benefits but the host is neither helped nor harmed
parasite
organism hat absorbs nutrients from the body fluids of living hosts
opportunisic
microorganisms that are normal residents of a host but cna cause illness when the hosts degenses are weakened by such factors as poor nutirtion or a recent bout with teh flu
exotoxins
toxic protein secreted by a bacterial cell that prouces specific symptoms even in the absence of the bacterium
kochs postulates
set of four citeria fore determining whether a specificpathogen is the cause of a disease
endotoxins
component of the outer membranes of certain gram negative bacteria responsible for generalized symptoms of fever and ache
bioremediation
use of living organism to detoxify and restore polluted and degraded ecosystems
alveolata
protistan clade that includes dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, and the ciliates.
protozoa
protist that lives primarily by ingesting food, an animal like mode of nutrition
algae
photosynthetic, plantlike protist
syngamy
process of celllar union during fertilization
plankton
mostly microscopic organisms that drift passively or swim weakly near the surface of oceans, ponds and lakes
phytoplankton
algae and photsyntehtic bacteria that drift passively in the pelagic zone of an aquatic environment
platids
one of a family of clsely related plant organelles , includng chloroplasts, chromoplasts and amyloplasts
exotoxins
toxic protein secreted by a bacterial cell that prouces specific symptoms even in the absence of the bacterium
kinetoplastids
group of protistans, including trypanosoma, which have a single large mitchondrion associtaed with a kinetoplast that house extranuclear DNA
kochs postulates
set of four citeria fore determining whether a specificpathogen is the cause of a disease
euglenoids
group of protistans, including euglena and is relaties, characterized bu an anterior pocket or chamber from which one or two flagella emerge
endotoxins
component of the outer membranes of certain gram negative bacteria responsible for generalized symptoms of fever and ache
diploplada
class that includes the centipede
bioremediation
use of living organism to detoxify and restore polluted and degraded ecosystems
parabasalids
group of protistans, including the trichomonads, thatlacks mitochondria
alveolata
protistan clade that includes dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, and the ciliates.
protozoa
protist that lives primarily by ingesting food, an animal like mode of nutrition
algae
photosynthetic, plantlike protist
syngamy
process of celllar union during fertilization
plankton
mostly microscopic organisms that drift passively or swim weakly near the surface of oceans, ponds and lakes
phytoplankton
algae and photsyntehtic bacteria that drift passively in the pelagic zone of an aquatic environment
platids
one of a family of clsely related plant organelles , includng chloroplasts, chromoplasts and amyloplasts
kinetoplastids
group of protistans, including trypanosoma, which have a single large mitchondrion associtaed with a kinetoplast that house extranuclear DNA
euglenoids
group of protistans, including euglena and is relaties, characterized bu an anterior pocket or chamber from which one or two flagella emerge
diploplada
class that includes the centipede
parabasalids
group of protistans, including the trichomonads, thatlacks mitochondria
exotoxins
toxic protein secreted by a bacterial cell that prouces specific symptoms even in the absence of the bacterium
kochs postulates
set of four citeria fore determining whether a specificpathogen is the cause of a disease
endotoxins
component of the outer membranes of certain gram negative bacteria responsible for generalized symptoms of fever and ache
bioremediation
use of living organism to detoxify and restore polluted and degraded ecosystems
alveolata
protistan clade that includes dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, and the ciliates.
protozoa
protist that lives primarily by ingesting food, an animal like mode of nutrition
algae
photosynthetic, plantlike protist
syngamy
process of celllar union during fertilization
plankton
mostly microscopic organisms that drift passively or swim weakly near the surface of oceans, ponds and lakes
phytoplankton
algae and photsyntehtic bacteria that drift passively in the pelagic zone of an aquatic environment
platids
one of a family of clsely related plant organelles , includng chloroplasts, chromoplasts and amyloplasts
kinetoplastids
group of protistans, including trypanosoma, which have a single large mitchondrion associtaed with a kinetoplast that house extranuclear DNA
euglenoids
group of protistans, including euglena and is relaties, characterized bu an anterior pocket or chamber from which one or two flagella emerge
diploplada
class that includes the centipede
parabasalids
group of protistans, including the trichomonads, thatlacks mitochondria
dinoflagellates
a unicelluolar photosynthetic alga with two flagella situated in pependicular grooves in cellulose plates covering the cell
apicomplexans
one of a group ofparasitic protozoans, some of which cause human diseases
sporozites
tiny infectious cells of apicomplexans that spred disease
ciliates
type of protozoan that moves by means of cilia
blades
leaflike structure of a seaweed that provides most of the surface area for phtosyntesis
stramenopila
diverse protistan clade which includes several heterotrophic groups and a variety of photosynthetic protists
heteromorhic
referring to a condition in the life cycle of all modern plants in which the sporophyte and gametopyte gernerations differ in morphology
golden algae
typicaly unicellular, biflagellated, algae with ellow and brown carotene and xanthophyll accessory pigments
diatoms
unicellular photosynthetic alga wiht a unique, glassy cell wall containing silica
thallus
seaweed body that is plantlike but lacks true roots, stems and leaves
holdfast
rootlike structure thatanchors seaweed
stipe
stemlike structure of a seaweed
alternation of generations
life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diplid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte characteristics of plants
sporophyte
multicellular diploid form in organisms undergoing alternation of gernerations that results from a union of gamees and that meiotically produces haplod\id spors that grow into the gametophyte generation
gametophyte
multicellular haloid form in organism undergoing alternation of gernerations that mitotically produces haploid gametes that unite and grow into the sporophyte generation
isomorphic
referring to alternating generations in whihc the sporophytes and gemetophytes look alike, altho they differ in chromosome bumber
vascular plants
plant with vacular tissue.
green algae
photosynthetic protists that inclue uicellular, coloial, and multicellular species wiht grass green chlorolasts
lichens
mutualistic colective formed by the symiotic association between a fungus and a potosynthetic alga
psuedopodia
cellular extension of amoeboid cells used in moving and feeding
amoebas
type of protist characterized by great flexibility andthe presence of pseudopodia
heliozoans
sun animals that live in resh water. they have skeletons made of siliceous or chitinous unfused plates
bryophytes
moss, liverwort, or homwort; nonvascular plant that inhabits the land but lacks many of the terrestrial adaptations of vascular plants
foram
marine protozaon that secretes a shel and extends pseudopodia through pors in its shell
cellular slime molds
type of protist that has unicellular amoedboid cells and multicellular reproductive bodies in its life cycle
vascular tissue
plant tissue consisting of cells joind ito tubes that transport water and nutrients thruout the plant body
pteridophytes
seedless plants with true roots with lignified vascular tisue
gymnsperm
vascular plant that bars naked seeds, seeds not enclosed inspecialized chambers
angiosperm
flowering plant, which forms seeds inside a protective chamber called an ovary
charophyceans
green algal group that shares two ultrastuctural features with land plants
peoxisomes
microbody containing enzyme that transfer hydrogen from various substrtes o oxygen producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide
apical meristems
embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and in the buds of shootsthat suplies cells for the plant to grow in length
placental transfer cell
plant cells that enhance the transfer of nutriets from parent to embryo
embryophytes
another name for land plants, recognizing hat land plants share the commn derived trait of multicellular, depndent embryos
alternation of generations
life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte
sporopollenin
secondary product, a polymer synthesized by a side branch of a major metabolic pathway of plants tat is resistant to almost all kinds of environmental damage
sporangia
capsule in fungi and plants in which meiosis occurs and haploid spores develop
gametangia
reproductive organ of bryophytes, consistng of the male antheridium and female archegonium
cuticle
waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desication in terrestrial plants
stomata
icroscopic pore surrounded by guard cels in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange
"deep greens"
international initiative focusing on the deepest phyogenetic branching within the plant kingdom to identify and name the major plant clades
kingdom plantae
traditional embryophyte definition of the plant kingdom
phylum hepatophyta
group of liverworts, small herbaceous onwoody plants
gametophore
mature gamete producing structure of a gametophyte body of a mos
protonema
mass of green, branched, one cell thick filaments produced by germinating moss spores
rhizoids
long tubular single cells or filamens of ells tat achor bryophytes to the ground
sporangium
capsule in fungi and plants in which meiosis occurs and haploid spores develop
peristome
upper part of the moss capsule often specialized for gradual spore discharge
peat
extensive deposits of undecayed organic material formed primarily from he wetland moss sphgnum
seedless vascular plants
colective name for the phyla lycophyta and pteridophyta
microphylls
small leaves of lycophytes that have only a single, unbranched vein
megaphylls
larger leaves of medern vascular plants served b a highly branched vascular system
homosporous
referring to plants in which a single typeof spore dvelops into a bisexual gametophyte having both male and female sex organs
heterosporous
referring to plants in which the sporophyte produces two kinds of spores that develop into unisexual gemetophtes, either female or male
microspores
spore from a herersporous plant that develops into a male gametophytewith antheridia
SPOROPHYLLS
modified leaf that bears sporangia
integument
layers of sporophyte tissue that contribute to the structure of an ovule of a seed plant
ovule
structure that developsin the plant ovary and contains the female gametophyte
progymnospores
extinct group of plants that is probably ancestral to gymnosperms and angiosperms
monocots
subdivision of flowering plants whose members possess oneembryonic seed leaf, or cotyledon
dicots
subdivision of flowering plants whose members possess two mbryonic seed leaves, or cotyledons
eudicot
large subgroup of ttraditionally dicot angiosperms including roses, peas, buttercups, sunflowers, oaks, and maples
sepals
whorl of modified leaves in angiosperms that encloses and protects the flower bud before it opens
stamens
pollen producing male reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an anther and filament
pericap
the thickend wallof a fruit
endosperm
nutrient rich tissue formed by the union of a sperm cell with two polar nuclei during dbl fertilization, which provides nourishment to the developing embryo in angiosperm seeds
mltiple fruit
ruit such as pineapple that develops frm an inforescence, a groupt of flowers tightly clustered together.
pollen grains
structures hat contain the immature male gametophytes
embryosac
female gametophyte of angiosperms, formd from the growth and division of the megaspore into a multicellular structure wiht eight haploid nuclei
cross polination
transfer of pollen from flowers of one plant to flowers of another plant of the same species
coevolution
mutual inflence on the evoltion of two differnt species interacing with each other and reciprocally inflencing each others adaptations
absorption
uptake of small nutrient molecles by an organisms own body
septa
cross walls that divide fungal hypae into cells
mycelium
densly branched network of hyphae in a fungus
plasmogamy
fusion of the cytoplasm of cells from two individuals, occurs as one stage of syngamy
chytrids
mainly aquatic primitive fungi that form unilagellated spores
mycorrhizae
mutualistic association of plant root and fungus
mold
rapidly growing, asexually vreproducing fungus
club fungus
common name for members of the phylum basidiomycota
yeasts
a unicellular fungus that lives in liquid or moist habitats, primarily rep[roducing asexually by simple cell division or by budding of a parent cell
lichen
mutualistic collective formed b y the symbiotic association between a fungus and a photosynthetic alga
mycosis
the gerneral term for a fungal infection
blastula
hollow ball of cells marking the end stage of cleAVAGE DURING EARLY EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT
gastrula
two layered, cup shaped embryonic stage
parazoans
members of the subkingdom of animals consisting of the sponges
cephalization
evolutionary trend toward the concentration of sensory euipment on the anterior end of the body
ectoderm
outermost of the three primary germ layers in animal embryos
diploblastic
having two germ layers
acoelomates
solid bodied animal lackin a cavity between the gut and outer body wall
enterocoelous
type of development found in deuterostomes
cambrian explosion
The rapid diversification of multicellular animal life around the beginning of the Cambrian Period, resulting in the appearance of almost all modern animal phyla.
spongocoel
the central cavity in the body of a sponge
osculum
a small mouthlike aperture, as of a sponge.
choanocytes
One of a layer of flagellated cells lining the body cavity of a sponge and characterized by a collar of cytoplasm surrounding the flagellum
parthenogenesis
development of an egg without fertilization.
bryozoans
Any of various small aquatic animals of the phylum Bryozoa that reproduce by budding and form mosslike or branching colonies permanently attached to stones or seaweed
brachiopods
Any of various marine invertebrates of the phylum Brachiopoda, having bivalve dorsal and ventral shells enclosing a pair of tentacled, armlike structures that are used to sweep minute food particles into the mouth
torsion
characteristic of gastropods in which the body rotates during development
ammonites
The coiled, flat, chambered fossil shell of an extinct cephalopod mollusk that was abundant in the Cretaceous Period
molting
periodic shedding of the cuticle in arthropods or the outer skin in reptiles
arthropods
Any of numerous invertebrate animals of the phylum Arthropoda, including the insects, crustaceans, arachnids, and myriapods, that are characterized by a chitinous exoskeleton and a segmented body to which jointed appendages are articulated in pairs
arthropoda
the phylum comprising the arthropods
chelicerae
one member of the first pair of usually pincerlike appendages of spiders and other arachnids
mandibles
the bone of the lower jaw
tilobites
Any of numerous extinct marine arthropods of the class Trilobita, of the Paleozoic Era, having a segmented body divided by grooves into three vertical lobes and found as fossils throughout the world
entomology
study of insects
isopods
An order of sessile-eyed Crustacea, usually having seven pairs of legs, which are all similar in structure:woodlice.
decapods
A crustacean of the order Decapoda, such as a crab, lobster, or shrimp, characteristically having ten legs, each joined to a segment of the thorax.
chordates
Any of numerous animals belonging to the phylum Chordata, having at some stage of development a dorsal nerve cord, a notochord, and gill slits and including all vertebrates and certain marine animals, such as the lancelets
lancelets
Any of various small, flattened marine organisms of the subphylum Cephalochordata, structurally similar to the vertebrates but having a notochord rather than a true vertebral column
somites
A segmental mass of mesoderm in the vertebrate embryo, occurring in pairs along the notochord and developing into muscles and vertebrae
craniata
chordate subgroup that possess a cranium
amniotes
Any of a group of vertebrates that have an amnion during embryonic development, including reptiles, birds, and mammals.
spiral valve
corkscrew shaped ridge that increases surface area and prolongs the pasage of food along the short digestive tract
cloaco
common opening for the degestive, urinary, and reproductiv tracts in al vertebrates except most mammals
vivaparous
bringing forth living young rather than eggs, as most mammals and some reptiles and fishes
diapsids
Any of various reptiles having a skull with two pairs of temporal openings and including the lizards, snakes, crocodiles, dinosaurs, and pterosaurs.
ectotherms
An organism that regulates its body temperature largely by exchanging heat with its surroundings; a poikilotherm.
theropods
Any of various large carnivorous saurischian dinosaurs of the suborder Theropoda of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, characterized by bipedal locomotion, large jaws, and short forelimbs.
hominid
species on the humna branch of the evolutionary tree