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53 Cards in this Set

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foreign policy
A policy that involves choice-making, like domestic policy, but additionally involves choices about relations with the rest of the world. The president is the chief initiator of foreign policy in the United States.
United Nations (UN)
Created in 1945, an organization whose members agree to renounce war and to respect certain human and economic freedoms. The seat of real power in the UN is the Security Council.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Created in 1949, an organization whose members include the United States, Canada, most Western European nations, and Turkey, all of whom agreed to combine military forces and to treat a war against one as a war against all.
European Union (EU)
An alliance of the major Western European nations that coordinates monetary, trade, immigration, and labor policies, making its members one economic unit. An example of regional organization.
secretary of state
The head of the Department of State and traditionally a key advisor to the president on foreign policy.
secretary of defense
The head of the Department of Defense and the key adviser on military plicy; a key foreign policy actor
Joint Chiefs of Staff
The commanding officers of the armed services who advise the president on military policy.
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
An agency created after World War II to coordinate American intelligence activities abroad. It became involved in intrigue, conspiracy, and meddling as well.
isolationism
a foreign policy course followed throughout most of our nation's history, whereby the United States has tried to stay out of other nations' ocnflicts, particularly European wars. Was reaffirmed by the Monroe Doctrine.
containment doctrine
A foreign policy strategy advocated by George Kennan that called for the United Staes to isolate the Soviet Union, "contains" its advances, and resist its encroachments by peaceful means if possible, but by force if necessary.
Cold War
War by other than military means usually emphasizing ideological conflict, such as that between the United States and the Soviet Union from the end of World War II until the 1990s.
McCarthyism
The fear, prevalent in the 1950s, that international Communism was conspiratorial, insidious, bent on world domination, and infiltrating American government and cultural institutions. It was named after Senator Joseph McCarthy and flourished after the Korean War.
arms race
A tense relationship beginning in the 1950s between the Soviet Union and the United States whereby one side's weaponry became the other side's goad to procure more weaponry, and so on.
detente
A slow transformation from conflict thinking to cooperative tinking in foreign policy strategy and policymaking. It sought a relaxation of tensions between the superpowers, coupled with firm guarantees of mutual security.
Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)
Renamed "Star Wars" by critics, a plan for defense against the Soviet Union unveiled by President Reagan in 1983. SDI would create a global umbrella in space, using computers to scan the skies and high-tech devices to destroy invading missiles.
interdependency
Mutual dependency, in which the actions of nations reverberate an daffect one another's economic lifelines.
tariff
A special tax added to imported goods to reaise the price, thereby protecting American buisnesses and workers from foreign competition.
balance of trade
The ratio of what is paid for imports to what is earned from exports. When more is imported than exported, there is a balance-of-trade deficit.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
An economic organization consisting primarily of Arab nations that controls the price of oil and the amount of oil its members produce and sell to other nations.
Marshall Plan
Plan to rebuild Europe after World War II
Monroe Doctrine
Reaffirmed America's inattention to Europe's problems but warned Europe to stay out of Latin America.
League of Nations
Predecessor to UN.
Proposed by Woodrow Wilson, not ratified by the United States.
"Riga Axiom"
Perspective that Soviet Union was monolithic, expansionary, totalitarian, evil, analogous to Nazi Germany.
perspective held by Soviet Specialists
"Yalta Axiom"
Perspective that Soviet Union just another traditional great power (more like British Empire).
Opinion of FDR
effects of "Riga Axiom" vs. "Yalta Axiom"
FDR ignored specialists, calling Stalin "Uncle Joe."
After FDR's sudden death, Truman takes over, specialists adivise Soviet Union evil, changes dynamics of relationship between United States and Soviet Union, ultimately leading to the idea of containment.
First Period of Foreign Policy since WWII
Domestic consensus over US Policy: 1947-1964
Second Period of Foreign Policy since WWII
bitter domestic conflict over US Policy: 1965-1991
Third Period of Foreign Policy since WWII
Post-Cold War Era: 1991-2001
Fourth Period of Foreign Policy since WWII
Post-9/11 Era: 2001-Present
3 Tools of Foreign Policy
Military, Economics, Diplomacy
International Organizations
cooperation of many nations
UN
International Monetary Fund
World Bank
UN General Assembly
Composed of all 175/191 Member nations
Each nation has one vote
UN Security Council
5 permanent members and 5 chosen from session to session
Seat of real power
Secretariat
Executive arm of the UN
Directs the administration of UN programs
International Monetary Fund
Helps regulate the chaotic world of finance
World Bank
Finances development projects in new nations
World Trade Organization
attempts to regulate international trade
Universal Postal Union
helps get mail from one country to another
Regional Organizations
organizations of several nations bound by a treaty, often for military reasons
NATO, Warsaw Pact, EU
Multinational Corporations (MNCs)
Source of much of the world’s industrial output
Sometimes more powerful (and often much wealthier) than the governments under which they operate.
Have voiced strong opinions about governments, taxes, and business regulations
Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs)
Groups - churches and labor unions have long had international interests and activities
World Actors
International and Regional orgs.
Multi-national corp.,
Nongovernmental Organizations
Individuals
Domestic Actors
President
Secretaries of State and Defense
Depts. of State and Defense
Congress
Joint Chiefs of Staff
National Security Council
CIA
President as policymaker
Main force behind foreign policy
Chief diplomat-Negotiates treaties and executive agreements
Commander in chief-Deploys American troops
Appoints U.S. ambassadors and the heads of executive departments
Sole power to accord official recognition to other countries and receive their representatives
Leader of Congress and the public
diplomats
Secretary of State
Foreign Service (ambassadors, representatives abroad)
national security establishment
Department of Defense
Joint Chiefs of Staff
Secretary of Defense
National Security Council
Central Intelligence Agency
Department of Defense
"The Pentagon"
created after WWII
combined Army, Navy, and Air Force
National Security Council (NSC)
coordinates American foreign and military policies
composed of president, vice president, secretary of defense, secretary of state
1947
Congress
shares constitutional authority over foreign and defense policy with President
Sole authority
The Senate
"Power of the Purse"
oversight
Sole Authority of Congress
declare war
raise and organize armed forces
appropriate funds for national security activities.
Foreign Policy power of the Senate
Determines whether treaties will be ratified and ambassadorial acn cabinet nominations confirmed.
"power of the purse"
Constitutional power given to Congress to raise and spend money
congressional oversight
power check on actions of executive branch