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124 Cards in this Set

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Ahl al-Sunnah
People of the Tradition (of the Prophet)
Ahl al-Bayt
People of the Household (of the Prophet)
Khalifah
Caliph, Caliphate
Shari'ah
Islamic law
Imamah
Imamate, referring to the distinctive institution of leadership under the 12 Imams
Walayat
esoteric function of interpreting the inner mysteries of the Qur'an and Shari'ah
Hadeeth
traditions, sayings, and examples of the Prophet as transmeitted by his companions and/or his household
Karbala
one of the holiest cities in Shi'ism. Location of the martyrdom of Imam Hussein and his companions. Subsequently the tombs and shrines of those individuals are located here.
Muharram
1st month in the Islamic calendar
Ashura
10th day of the month of Muharram. Date of the martyrdom of Imam Hussein. This is a day of mourning in the Shi'ite world.
Matam
ceremonial mourning
Velatat-e Faqih
"Guardianship of the Jurist" - Khomeini's treatise of Islamic Government in which society should be lead by a qualified faqih (jursit) in order to implement Shari'ah
Zolfiqar
the double-edged/double-pointed sword that was passed from the Prophet to Ali, and remains a symbol of Shi'ism
Ta'ziya
ritual re-enactment of the martyrdom of Imam Hussein
Seyyed
descendent of the Prophet through the bloddline of the offspring of Ali and Fatema
Ulama
Islamic clergy
Marja' al-taqlid
"Source of Emulation" - highest ranking Shi'a jurist/scholar. Every Shia follows a marja' of his/her choosing, although it is usually a cleric of lower rank that most Shias turn to when addressing their religious concerns
Red Shi'ism
"Karbala is everywhere; every month is Muharram; every day is 'Ashura."
Black Shi'ism
Dr. Ali Shari'ati - Ritulaized self-sacrifice useless and served no purpose. True Shi'ite willing and ready at all times to sacrifice themselves in struggle against tyranny.
Shi'a
Underscore importance of vehicle for the message . . . the Prophet. Revere Prophet, honor Qur'an
3 Points of US policy in Middle East
Palestinian Israeli Conflict Cheap flow of oil Terrorism and concept of jihad
Muslims
religious, "submissive"
Islamists
political, want Shari'ah
Islamic Moderates
play within rules, wanting to get into office, not overturn government
Islamic Extremists
want to overthrow system, implement Shari'ah
jihad
struggle
Lesser Jihad
Violent struggle, defending village/family against aggressors. Does not condone terrorism against civilians-all violence defensive.
Greater Jihad
Non-violent personal and lifetime struggle to rid oneself from baser instincts, more difficult and more important
Hasan Al-Banna
Egyptian teacher, founded Muslim Brotherhood. Islam should be applied to political and social life. Jihad necessary to rid Muslim world from Western imperialism and colonialism, to overthrow Muslim leaders who did not uphold laws of Shari'ah. Views reflected realities of Muslim world post WWII.
Mawlana Mawdui
Concerned about declines of Muslims in South Asia: Muslim identity and unity increasingly threatened by rise of Hindu sect; Jihad struggle in path of Allah is to be carried out to acheive just and equitable social order for humanity as a whole. Founded Jumaat-I-Islami (Islamic Association) - preached jihad is only way to implement Isalamic reform
Sayyid Qutb
Father of contemporary militant Islam. Radicalization of Jihad. Very educated, not violent personally. Reaction to realities of times (Egypt, Aram-Israeli Conflict) After visiting US, avid critic of perceived moral decadence, materialism, sexual permissiveness, racism. Jihad incumbent upon Muslims to end injustice, fight Un-Islamic government and colonialism of West.
Militant
Extremist
Key Actors in International Relations
States
View of the Individual
One or Combination of: Good Selfish Antagonistic
View of the State
Autonomous Power Seeking Unitary Interests
View of International System
Ordering Principle Interdependence Balance of Power Chance for Cooperation
Ordering Principle
Anarchy or Hierarchy
Anarachy
Lack of government All states are the same when broken down Capabilities only distinguishing aspect Horizontal power organization
Hierarchy
Government Vertical power organization
Realism
Anarchy Individual State Capabilities determine POWER states fend for themselves system changes little if at all
Defense of Post-Cold War Realism
Interractions have not changed, politics simply changed from bipolar to unipolar. Democracy did not bring the end of the Cold War.
Balance of Power
International Status quo, States counter each other
Classical/Human Nature Realism
States led by "will to power" human beings will to power pushes each state to strive for supremacy Anarchy causes state to worry about BoP human nature is the deep cause of security competition.
Defensive Realism/NeoRealism
States aim to survive and seek security great powers pay careful attention to BoP; want to maintain status quo Anarachy forces defensive competition for power Anarchy is the cause of security competition
Offensive Realism/NeoRealism
States behave aggressively because Power is key to maximizing odds of survival in anarchical system BoP rarely found, int'l system creates incentives for states to look for opportunities to gain power and use offensively. State's ulitmate goal is to be HEGEMON in the system (regionally) Anarchy is the cause of security competition.
Liberalism/Neo-Liberal Institutionalism
Needs to be more cooperation b/t rival states; Iterated interactions lead to trust norms and rules of regimes affect behavior if used by states and corparations engaging in a process of mutual adjustment states in international system should be interdependent, despite anarchial nature self-abnegation rare, but possiple
self-abegnation
accepting losses for sake of relationship
Constructivism
State behavior shaped by ideology claims the existence of an intersubjective conception of process with identities and interest endogenous to interaction. identity based on social context "Anarchy is what states make of it"
3 Cultures of Anarchy
Hobbesian Lockean Kantian
Hobbes
anarchy based on enmity. reacts to enemies as deep revisionist, discounting the future and anticipating the worst case Self-sustaining offense. Leviathan maintains order in anarchy. Violence unchecked: Kill enemies before they kill you.
Locke
anarchy based on rivalry rivals expect the other to act as if they recognize unalienable rights and therefore try not to conquer others. Self-Sustaining Defense Live and let live limitation on violence.
Kant
anarchy based on friendship disputes not settled with war or the threat of war. Collective Security instead of Leviathan. "all for one and one for all"
Social welfare policies
Policies that provide benefits to individuals, either through entitlements or means-testing.
entitlement programs
Government benefits that certain qualified individuals are entitled to by law, regardless of need.
means-tested programs
Government programs available only to individuals below a poverty line.
income distribution
The "shares" of the national income earned by various groups.
income
The amount of funds collected between any two points in time.
wealth
The value of assets owned.
poverty line
A method used to count the number of poor people, it considers what a family must spend for an "austere" standard of living. an annual income of $12,803 for a family of three as of 1998.
feminization of poverty
The increasing concentration of poverty among women, especially unmarried women and their children.
progressive tax
A tax by which the government takes a greater share of the income of the rich than the poor - for example, when a rich family pays 50 percent of its income and a poor faily pays 5 percent.
proportional tax
A tax by which the government takes the same share of income from everyone, rich and poor alike - for example,when a rich family and a poor family both pay 20 percent.
regressive tax
A tax in which the burden falls relatively more heavily upon low-income groups than upon wealthy taxpayers. The opposite of a progressive tax, in which tax rates increase as income increases.
Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC)
A "negative income tax" that provides income to very poor individuals in lieu of charging them federal incom taxes.
transfer payments
Benefits given by the government directly to individuals. Payments may be either cash transfers, such as Social Security payments and retirement payments to former government employees, on in-kind transfers, such as food stamps and low-interest loans for college education.
Social Security Act of 1935
Created both the Social Security Program and a national assistance program for poor children, usually called "AFDC."
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA)
The official name of the "welfare reform" law of 1996.
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)
Once called "Aid to Families With Dependent Children," the new name for public assistance to needy families.
Social Security Trust Fund
The "bank account" into which Social Security contributions are "deposited" and used to pay out eligible recipients.
Privatization of Social Security
Reducing individual contribution to Social Security system, instead putting the money into a private account, a stock, a bond, or another investment. Limited - diverting a percentage Complete - diverting entirety
"in-kind payment"
Government distribution of something with cash value that is not cash itself (such as food stamps or low-interest loan for college education).
foreign policy
A policy that involves choice-making, like domestic policy, but additionally involves choices about relations with the rest of the world. The president is the chief initiator of foreign policy in the United States.
United Nations (UN)
Created in 1945, an organization whose members agree to renounce war and to respect certain human and economic freedoms. The seat of real power in the UN is the Security Council.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Created in 1949, an organization whose members include the United States, Canada, most Western European nations, and Turkey, all of whom agreed to combine military forces and to treat a war against one as a war against all.
European Union (EU)
An alliance of the major Western European nations that coordinates monetary, trade, immigration, and labor policies, making its members one economic unit. An example of regional organization.
secretary of state
The head of the Department of State and traditionally a key advisor to the president on foreign policy.
secretary of defense
The head of the Department of Defense and the key adviser on military plicy; a key foreign policy actor
Joint Chiefs of Staff
The commanding officers of the armed services who advise the president on military policy.
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
An agency created after World War II to coordinate American intelligence activities abroad. It became involved in intrigue, conspiracy, and meddling as well.
isolationism
a foreign policy course followed throughout most of our nation's history, whereby the United States has tried to stay out of other nations' ocnflicts, particularly European wars. Was reaffirmed by the Monroe Doctrine.
containment doctrine
A foreign policy strategy advocated by George Kennan that called for the United Staes to isolate the Soviet Union, "contains" its advances, and resist its encroachments by peaceful means if possible, but by force if necessary.
Cold War
War by other than military means usually emphasizing ideological conflict, such as that between the United States and the Soviet Union from the end of World War II until the 1990s.
McCarthyism
The fear, prevalent in the 1950s, that international Communism was conspiratorial, insidious, bent on world domination, and infiltrating American government and cultural institutions. It was named after Senator Joseph McCarthy and flourished after the Korean War.
arms race
A tense relationship beginning in the 1950s between the Soviet Union and the United States whereby one side's weaponry became the other side's goad to procure more weaponry, and so on.
detente
A slow transformation from conflict thinking to cooperative tinking in foreign policy strategy and policymaking. It sought a relaxation of tensions between the superpowers, coupled with firm guarantees of mutual security.
Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)
Renamed "Star Wars" by critics, a plan for defense against the Soviet Union unveiled by President Reagan in 1983. SDI would create a global umbrella in space, using computers to scan the skies and high-tech devices to destroy invading missiles.
interdependency
Mutual dependency, in which the actions of nations reverberate an daffect one another's economic lifelines.
tariff
A special tax added to imported goods to reaise the price, thereby protecting American buisnesses and workers from foreign competition.
balance of trade
The ratio of what is paid for imports to what is earned from exports. When more is imported than exported, there is a balance-of-trade deficit.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
An economic organization consisting primarily of Arab nations that controls the price of oil and the amount of oil its members produce and sell to other nations.
Marshall Plan
Plan to rebuild Europe after World War II
Monroe Doctrine
Reaffirmed America's inattention to Europe's problems but warned Europe to stay out of Latin America.
League of Nations
Predecessor to UN. Proposed by Woodrow Wilson, not ratified by the United States.
"Riga Axiom"
Perspective that Soviet Union was monolithic, expansionary, totalitarian, evil, analogous to Nazi Germany. perspective held by Soviet Specialists
"Yalta Axiom"
Perspective that Soviet Union just another traditional great power (more like British Empire). Opinion of FDR
effects of "Riga Axiom" vs. "Yalta Axiom"
FDR ignored specialists, calling Stalin "Uncle Joe." After FDR's sudden death, Truman takes over, specialists adivise Soviet Union evil, changes dynamics of relationship between United States and Soviet Union, ultimately leading to the idea of containment.
First Period of Foreign Policy since WWII
Domestic consensus over US Policy: 1947-1964
Second Period of Foreign Policy since WWII
bitter domestic conflict over US Policy: 1965-1991
Third Period of Foreign Policy since WWII
Post-Cold War Era: 1991-2001
Fourth Period of Foreign Policy since WWII
Post-9/11 Era: 2001-Present
3 Tools of Foreign Policy
Military, Economics, Diplomacy
International Organizations
cooperation of many nations UN International Monetary Fund World Bank
UN General Assembly
Composed of all 175/191 Member nations Each nation has one vote
UN Security Council
5 permanent members and 5 chosen from session to session Seat of real power
Secretariat
Executive arm of the UN Directs the administration of UN programs
International Monetary Fund
Helps regulate the chaotic world of finance
World Bank
Finances development projects in new nations
World Trade Organization
attempts to regulate international trade
Universal Postal Union
helps get mail from one country to another
Regional Organizations
organizations of several nations bound by a treaty, often for military reasons NATO, Warsaw Pact, EU
Multinational Corporations (MNCs)
Source of much of the world’s industrial output Sometimes more powerful (and often much wealthier) than the governments under which they operate. Have voiced strong opinions about governments, taxes, and business regulations
Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs)
Groups - churches and labor unions have long had international interests and activities
World Actors
International and Regional orgs. Multi-national corp., Nongovernmental Organizations Individuals
Domestic Actors
President Secretaries of State and Defense Depts. of State and Defense Congress Joint Chiefs of Staff National Security Council CIA
President as policymaker
Main force behind foreign policy Chief diplomat-Negotiates treaties and executive agreements Commander in chief-Deploys American troops Appoints U.S. ambassadors and the heads of executive departments Sole power to accord official recognition to other countries and receive their representatives Leader of Congress and the public
diplomats
Secretary of State Foreign Service (ambassadors, representatives abroad)
national security establishment
Department of Defense Joint Chiefs of Staff Secretary of Defense National Security Council Central Intelligence Agency
Department of Defense
"The Pentagon" created after WWII combined Army, Navy, and Air Force
National Security Council (NSC)
coordinates American foreign and military policies composed of president, vice president, secretary of defense, secretary of state 1947
Congress
shares constitutional authority over foreign and defense policy with President Sole authority The Senate "Power of the Purse" oversight
Sole Authority of Congress
declare war raise and organize armed forces appropriate funds for national security activities.
Foreign Policy power of the Senate
Determines whether treaties will be ratified and ambassadorial acn cabinet nominations confirmed.
"power of the purse"
Constitutional power given to Congress to raise and spend money
congressional oversight
power check on actions of executive branch