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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Organ System
group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
Organ
group of tissues that work together to perform closely related fuctions
Cell Specialization
the process in which cells develop in different ways to perform different tasks
Exocytosis
process by which a cell releases large amounts of material
Pinocytosis
process by which a cell takes in liquid from the surrounding environment
Phagocytosis
process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell
Endocytosis
process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane
Active Transport
energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference
Facilitated Diffusion
movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels
Hypotonic
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes
Hypertonic
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes
Isotonic
when the concentration of two solutions is the same
Equilibrium
when the concentration of a solute is the same throughout a solution
Concentration
the mass of solute in a given volume of solution, or mass/volume
Lipid Bilayer
double-layered sheet that forms the core of nearly all cell membranes
Cell Wall
strong supporting layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria
Cell Membrane
thin, flexible barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell
Centriole
one of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the nuclear envelope
Chloroplast
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
Mitochondrion
cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use
Vacuole
cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
Lysosome
cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell
Golgi Apparatus
stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum
Endoplasmic Reticulum
internal membrane system in cells in which lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled and some proteins are modified
Ribosome
small particle in the cell on which proteins are assembled; made of RNA and protein
Nucleolus
small, dense region within most nuclei in which the assembly of proteins begins
Chromosome
threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
Chromatin
granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins
Nuclear Envelope
layer of two membranes that surrounds the nucleus of a cell
Cytoplasm
material inside the cell membrane—not including the nucleus
Organelle
specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell
Calvin Cycle
reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugars
ATP Synthase
large protein that uses energy from H+ ions to bind ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP
Light-Dependent Reactions
reactions of photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH
NAD+ (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate)
one of the carrier molecules that transfers high-energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules
Stroma
region outside the thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts
Photosystem
light-collecting units of the chloroplast
Thylakoid
saclike photosynthetic membrane found in chloroplasts
Chlorophyll
principal pigment of plants and other photosynthetic organisms; captures light energy
Photosynthsis
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
one of the principal chemical compounds that living things use to store and release energy
Heterotroph
organism that obtains energy from the foods it consumes; also called a consumer
Autotroph
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer
Electron Transport Chain
a series of proteins in which the high-energy electrons from the Krebs cycle are used to convert ADP into ATP
Krebs Cycle
second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions
Aerobic
process that requires oxygen
Anaerobic
process that does not require oxygen
Fermentation
process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen
NAD+ (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide)
electron carrier involved in glycolysis
Cellular Respiration
process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
Glycolysis
first step in releasing the energy of glucose, in which a molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid
Calorie
amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius
Cancer
disorder in which some of the body's own cells lose the ability to control growth
Cyclin
one of a family of closely related proteins that regulate the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
Telophase
fourth and final phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes begin to disperse into a tangle of dense material
Anaphase
the third phase of mitosis, during which the chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles
Metaphase
second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
Spindle
fanlike microtubule structure that helps separate the chromosomes during mitosis
Centriole
one of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the nuclear envelope
Prophase
first and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the opposite sides of the nucleus
Cell Cycle
series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
Interphase
period of the cell cycle between cell divisions
Centromere
area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached
Chromatid
one of two identical “sister” parts of a duplicated chromosome
Cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm during cell division
Mitosis
part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides
Cell Division
process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells