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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A matter is anything that has (2 things)
mass and volume
mass is? and is measured in ?
the amount of matter in an object, grams
volume is? and is measured in>?
the amoung of space an objet takes up, ml
Elements are (3 things)
the purest, simplest form of matter
not combined with anything else
at least 109 diff. elements
6 major elements?
carbon, nitrogen, hyrdrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, sulfur
Atoms are?
the basic building blocks of matter
the smallest portion of an element that still retains the characteristics of that element is an?
each element is made up of?
only one type of atom

this is how many atoms of carbon?
H2 has how many atoms?
atoms cannot be?
broken down into simpler substances by natural processes
What was the atomic theory and who created it?
All matter is composed of atoms, the smallest component of an element which retains the characteristics of that element, Dalton
the nucleus is the?
central core of an atom
the protons have a ?
positive charge
the nuetrons have a ?
nuetral charge
where are the protons and neutrons located?
in the nucleus
electrons have a ?
negative charge
electrons determine
the activity of an atom
electrons are located in?
the electron cloud
the protons and neutrons determine?
What is an isotope?
a form of an element with a number of neutrons that is different than usual
ex: C-12, C-14
Atomic mass=
the number of protons plus the number of neutrons
What is an ion?
a form of an element with a number of electrons that is different than usual
usually the number of electrons equals
the number of protons
when an electron is lost?
the number of protons is greater than the number of electrons leaving a positively charged ion
what is a positively charged ion called?
When an electron is gained?
the number of protons is less than the number of electrons, leaving a negatively charged ion
what is a negatively charged ion called?
If a cation is close to an anion, ?
they will be drawn toward eachother
the process where a cation and anion are drawn toward eachother is called a?
ionic bond
A chemical reaction is ?
the making and breaking of chemical bonds
a chemical bond is what holds?
compounds and molecules together
bonding is determined by?
electron activity
Chemical reactions involve changing? and turns ____ into ____
the properties of matter, and turns reactants into products
Activation energy is?
initial amount of energy to get a chemical reaction started.
the line between the reactants and the products is read as?
a balanced chemical reaction has?
the same number of reactants on both sides
Dehydration Synthesis?
a chemical reaction which combines molecules by the removal of water
recognizing dehydration synthesis (2 things)
1. two or more smaller molecules are combined to form a larger molecule (respiration)
2. water is always leftover as an extra product
a chemical reaction which splits molecules by the addition of water
recognizing hydrolysis (2 things)
1. a large molecules is broken down into two or more smaller molecules
2. water is used to break up the larger molecules
What are ions?
an atom with a charge due to the gain or loss of electrons
What are ions?
an atom with a charge due to the gain or loss of electrons
electrons are gained or lost from the ? to acheive ?
outermost energy level to acheive stable state
Ionic bonds are when?
opposites attract
the strong attraction of a cationtoward an?
What is a covalent bond?
the sharing of electrons between atoms ina compound or molecule
What is the purpose of a covalent bond?
because sometimes atoms dont have enough energy to gain or lose electrons (to become stable) so they have to share
what is polarity?
the uneven distribution of shared electrons, resulting in partial charging at either end
water is poloar because the electrons are not shared equally so?
each end has a slight charge
water is polar because it is attracted to other polar molecules thus
able to dissolve them
a hydrogen bond is a weak?
attractions between polar molecules
What is a compound?
a substance that is formed when atoms of DIFFERNT elements combine
A compound has different ?
properties than the elements that formed it
ex: 2 atoms of hydrogen one atom of oxygen
hydrogen and oxygen are gasses, water is a liquid
What is a molecule?
a particle in which atoms are held together by a connection called a covalent bond
Covalent bonds occur when ?
two or more atoms share electrons rather than trading them
an example of a molecule
Oxygen gas
- 2 atoms of oxygen with two pairs of electrons shared between them
What are isomers?
compounds with the same molecular formula but differet structural arrangment
ex of isomer
C6H1206= glucose, fructose, galactose
What is a mixture?
a combination in which the individual components retain their own properties, the substance does not form bonds and cannot be separated
What is a solution?
a mixture in which one or more substances is distributed evenly in another
ex: of solution
sugar dissolved in water
What is a suspension?
a mixture in which the particles of materials are temporarily mixed together
example of suspension:
sand in water will eventually settle out
What is a colloid?
a mixture in which the particles are permanently suspended as gel
example of a colloid