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50 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is matter
matter is anything that has mass or volume.. everything is made of matter
matter in relation to mass is...
the amount of matter in an object
matter in relation to volume is..
the amount of spcae the object takes up
elements
simplest forms of matter, atleast 109 elements
Living organisms are made of 6 elements
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Phosporus, Nitrogen, Sulfur
Atoms
basic building block of matter, retains characteristics of element
nucleus of an atom is made up of
protons and neutrons
protons have a ____ charge
+ postitive
neutrons have a _____ charge
neutral/none
electrons have a ______ charge
-/njegative
electrons are located...
in electron cload/shells and it determines the activitiy of an atom
isotope
atom with odd number of neutrons then usual
Ion
a form of an element with an amount of electrons that differs from the original amount
Chemical reactions
making and breaking of chemical bonds
a chemical bond holds....
compounds and molecules together
bonding is determined....
electron activity
chemical reactions involves
changing of the properties of matter
cheimcal reactions turn reactants into,....
products
Activation energy
initial amount of energy needed to get a cheimcal reactiion started
dehydration synthesis
a chemical reaction when molecules combine by removing water
Name 2 ways to recognize dehydration synthesis
1. two or smaller molecusled combine to make a bigger molecule
2. water is always leftover
Hydrolysis
a chemical reaction is=n which molecules split with addition of water
2 ways to recognize hydrolysis
1. a larger molecule becomes 2 or more smaller molecutes
2. water is used to break the larger molecule
ion
an atom with a charge due to gain/loss of electrons
ionic bonds
"opposite attracts"
a strong attraction of a positively charged ion toward a negatively charged ion
positivlely charged ion
caTion
negatively charged ion
anion
covalent bonds
the sharing of electrons between atoms in a compound or molecule
purpose of a covalent bond
it requires to much energy to gain/loss electron, so instead share electron
Polarity
uneven distribution in a COVALENT BOND, resultin in partial charge at either end
what causes polarity
electrons not shared equally, so slight charge on ends
hydrogen bond
a weak attraction between polar molecules
compound
a substance that is formed when atoms of different elements combine chemcally
had different properties then original elements
molecule
a particle in which atoms are held together by a connection called a covalent bond.... covalent bonds occur when 2 or more atoms share electrons rather thean trading them
isomers
compounds with same molecular formulas but different structural arangment
mixtures
a combination of substances, in which individual components retain own properites. the substances do no form bonds, and can be seperated
solution
a mixture in which one ore more substances is distributed evenly in another
suspension
a mixture in which particles of material are temporarily mixed together
colloid
a mixture in which the particles are permanently suspended as a gel
inorganic substances
compounds withouth carbon and hydrogen together
3 main inorganic substances
water, acids/bases, salt
Monomer
a subunit that acts as a building block for larger molecules
polymer
a very large molecule consisting of repeated linked units
Carbon
an element that makes up a large portion of living things, most of the mass is made of carbon based compounds
organic substances consist of
compounds of carbon and hydrogen together
4 types of organic substances
carboyhydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
carbohydrates
sugars and starches
lipids
fats, oils, wax
proteins
amino acids, enzymes
nucleic acids
RNA and DNA