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25 Cards in this Set

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writers who, during the Progressive Era, exposed corruption and scandal in U.S. politics, society, and economy in articles published in new, widely circulating, weekly magazines such as McClures and Colliers which needed exciting, hard hitting material. modifying the scandal mongering of yellow journalism into a mission for reform, these journalists, essayists, and novelists treated nothing as sacred and were dubbed muckrakers in 1906 by theodor rossevelt because they reminded him of the stereotypical characters in John Bunyans christian allegory, pilgrims progress, who were always looking down at the bad in life and never looked up to see the good. the name stuck, but they saw themselves as fighting for the good. some of the most prominent were Ray Stannard Baker, David Graham Phillips, Upton Sinclair, Lincoln Steffends and Ida Tarbell, and by raising public consciousness and moral outrage, they helped bring reforms such as the pure food and drug act, new forms of city government, the federal reserve system, and the 17th amendment.
northern securities case
a case brought by theodore roosevelt in 1902 and decided in roosevelts favor by the Supreme court in 1904, thereby ending a giant railroad monopoly, reinvigorating the sherman anti trust act, and laying the legal foundation for government regulation of the economy. this is significant as a representation of one of the chief developments of the turn of the 20th century- the emergence of huge, consolidated firms with near monopolistic powers-- and of theodore roosevelts policy for dealing with these big businesses which threatened to become more powerful than the governemtn. his policy, despite his later reputation as a "trust buster," was not to destroy the trusts or big business but to regulate them as necessary in order to insure they act morally and in the public interest. First, he needed to prove that the government had the power to so regulate because the supreme court in U.S. v. E.C. Knight Co. had incapacitatedthe sherman anti trust act and because congress was controlled by old guard republicans who represented the interests of big business. anit trust act and because congress was controlled by old guard republicans who represented the interests of big business. roosevelts decision to sue the northern securities Co. was astute because it involved railroads and therefore interstate commerce. it was a holding company organized by J.P. Morgan and James J. Hill to control the railroads in the western half of the U.S. -- the great northern pacific, and burlington RRs directly and indirectly the union pacific and southern pacific. the company would be extremely powerful, and the stock manipulation had nearly caused a crash. after the decision to disallow the holding company, roosevelt had proof that the federal government could regulate, and he brought about 25 cases against consolidations threatenign the public interest.
pinchot, gifford
conservationist and political leader who, as the first professionally trained forester in the US became the first head of the US forest service when theodor roosevelt created the agency in 1905. pinchot, having been educated in the scientific management of forests in europe, had a utilitarian philosophy about the environment and agreed with TRs belief in the need for governmental regulation of the natural environment so it would benefit all. he and TR were conservationists who took a middle position between the preservationists who wanted the wilderness kept untouched and entrepreneurs who wanted unrestricted commercial development. Fond of saying, "wilderness is waste,: pinchot worked planned use of the nations natural resources. he went on to be professor of forestry at Yale University and, later, governor of Pennsylvania.
Sanger, margaret
a public health nurse and leader of the birth control movement, she founded the american birth control league in 1921 which became planned parenthood in 1942. she gave all women an opportunity to control their own bodies and have more wide ranging, fuller lives.
anthracite coal strike
strike by united mine workers in 1902 in pennsylvania to protest low wages, long hours, and unsafe working conditions which was settled as the result of theodore roosevelts intervention which forced the mine owners to accept arbitration. this is significant because it shows roosevelts attitudes toward economic issues and because it shows the owners attitudes towards their businesses and labor.
New Naionalism
Theodore Roosevelt's platform and philosophy in the compaign of 1912 which argued that a strong national goverment was needed to regulate big businesses in the interest of the nation as a whole and to protect the rights of the people. It was a response to the growing sense that the U.S.s problems as a society were national problems which needed to be dealt with through national policy and,through the federal government and strong executive leadership. The New Ntionalism and the New Freedom set the groundwork of much liberal legislation in the 20th century.
Eighteenth Amendment
Ratified in 1919 which out lawed the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages in the U.S. Put into effect by the Volstead Act. The war effort and the identification of beer and sirits with evel and Germans promoted its passage. As a social experiment in raising and controlling people's morals, it failed but still exemplified one of the ways some people sought to use the government in the 20th century. The 21st Amendment repealed the 18th in 1933.
The Jungle
Socialist novel written by Upton Sinclair which described unsanitary conditions in the meat-packing industry so graphically that it inspired the passage of the Meat Inspection Act of 1906. Sinclair had written the novel to arouse the public to act in favor of the worders and thereby inspire political reform which would bring social justice to them. Instead, he inspired twho consumer protection acts; the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act.
New Freedom
Woodrow Wilson's plaform and philosophy in the campaign of 1912 which emphasized restoring freedoms by using government to end the need for governmen, principally by reopening competition and promoting moral behavior. Wilson believed that poverty or social degradation were signs of the individual's moral weakness, not a matter of social circumstances over which the individual had litle control and could not easily escape. The New Freedom is significant as a backword-looking version of Progressivism, revealing that Progressivism included most of the political spectrum and had contradictory characteristices.
Scientific Management
Frederick W. Taylor's mehod of organizing indusrial production by applying scientific techneques and engineering principles to promote order and efficiency. Taylor's disciples, however, created a new era of labor management by creating new professions such as personnel administreation and industial psychology. Scientific management is symbolic of that aspect of Progressivism which emphasized order and efficiency and giving more authority to experts.
Federal Reserve Act
Major banking reform measure passed during the Wilson Administration in December 1914 which created a decentralized banking system under a centralized administraion which was designed to provide a flexible curency system, reduce the power of the finace capitalists, and create a national banking system which would be able o moderate the extremes of the business cycle. This was the U.s.'s first truly national banking system sice Andrew Jackson destroyed the second Bank of the Unied States in the 1830's.
underwood tariff
revision passed in 1913 under Woodrow Wilson which signigicantly reduced tariff rates for the first time since the Civil War and set the first income taz schedules. I repreents a partial enactment of Wilson's New Freedom on which he had campaigned in 1912 and is indicative of the Progressive demand for poicies to benefit the people and restore economic opportunity and to reduce the power of big business which had influenced the government to increase the tariff fairly consistently during the late 19th century.
triangle shirtwaist fire
Fire in a sweatshop in March 1911 in New York City in which 146 garment workers died. Alhough the owners were acquitted, it inspired legislation to mandate safer factory conditions and stimulated the formation of labor organizations such as the Women's Trade Union League and the International Ladies' Garment Workers Union. It represents the dangers and exploitation which often accompany unregulated industry and made the point of Progressive reformers such as Jane Addams hat recent immigrants and the poor suffered and failed to become wealthy not because of moral terpitude but because of conditions beyond their control.
city beautiful movement
Nation-wide offort to make cities more atractive and meaningful through the provision of public parks and the construction of museums, libraries, and other institutions. The movement promotied the addition of open spaces and parks, but the movement had little direct impact on most working class central cities where housing remained filthy and overcrowded.
neutral rights
the 18th century principle maintaining that non belligerent nations have the same rights in wartime that they have in peacetime and therefore can trade freely with belligerent nations. the US became the chief apologist for these rights because they corresponded with US revolutionary ideals and because the US as a neutral nation during the wars of the French revolution and napoleon, could and did profit enormously by providing goods to both sides. they are a good example of how the US has combined moral principles and self interest in foreign policy, thereby preceiving itself as idealistic and appearing to others as hypocritical. in world war 1, wilson insisted on US neutral rights with his strict accountability policy against Germanys submarine warfare, helping to bring US entry in 1917
central powers
Austria-Hungary and Germany, the nations that fought against britain, france, and russia plus their allies including the United states in WWI
british passenger liner sunk off the coast of ireland by german submarine on May 7, 1915 with great loss of life, including 124 americans. this caused a sift rise in anti german sentiment in the US despite the fact that the germans had declared a war zone around the british isles and issued public warnings and that the ship carried ammunition and canadian troops. this was a sign that the german submarine warfare could push the US into WWI
creel committee
this government agency, established by congress in april 1917 that had the purpose of uniting public opinion behind the war effort. the result was a climate of hatred and fear in the US which did not end with the war but continued into the postwar period when its anti subversive, nationalistic attitudes were redirected against communists and anarchists, contributing to the Red Scare of 1919-1920
allied powers
the name generally used for great britain, france, and russia during WWI. the allied powers were important because they won the war, but the term is also significant as an indicator of ethnocentrism.
zimmermann telegram
german message of February 1917, intercepted and deciphered by the british, offering mexico the territory it had lost to the US in 1848 in return for joining the central powers against the US if the US should enter WWI. when this was transmitted to and published in the US, it brought a public demand for war, and while wilson continued to resist war until april 1917, the telegram was one of the factors which finally brought US entry into WWI.
fourteen points
wilsons peace plan of january 1918 which called for freedom of the seas, equal access to markets and raw materials, self determination of all peoples, partial settlement of colonial claims, open negotiation of treaties, reduction of arms, and a league of nations to preserve the peace. the germans agreed to an armistice in november 1918 on the assumption that the treaty of versailles would be based on this plan, but for the most part it was not, leading to claims of betrayal in germany.
red scare
the public hysteria of 1919 over the possibility that the communisis or reds were about to take over the US. This irrational fear led to a denial of civil liberties in the name of protecting liberty. after a series of labor strikes and race riots, info was collected on recent immigrants and political radicals and conducted raids arresting people who had committed no crimes. detained without arrest warrants and denied specific charges and legal counsel, these people had their constitutional rights violated, and those who were not citizens were deported.
installment buying
the concept of buying on time using credit. this system of payment allowed the customer to pay a small amount down at the time of purchase and then make subsequent payments at intervals until the item is paid off. it is an example of how the twenties were characterized by a clash of cultures.
mcnary haugen bill
legislative measure supported by farmers to overcome the farm depression of the 1920s. it called for separating domestic and foreign markets and the marketing of the excess of these products on the world market at lower world prices, thus keeping domestic prices high. the significance is that the farmers were denied government cooperation which was used to help industry, and as a result the farmers economic condition continued to deteriorate, contribut to the great depression.
ku klux klan
a secret society, originally appearing in the south during reconstruction but reorganized in georgia in 1915 as an anti black, anti foreign, anti international, anti semitic, anti catholic organization dedicated to preserving the "true america" of whites and their traditional religious, mral, and cutlural beliefs against modernist, urban, secular influences. the kkk is important as a prime example not only of the cultural conflict between traditionalists and modernists in the 20s but also of the insecurity and desire for order by those who felt most threatened by change and the willingness of others to exploit that insecurity to gain power and wealth.