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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a reflex?
a Reflex is an involuntary response to a stimulus that is present at birth and integrated by ~6 months. (very important)

What is a reaction?
An involuntary response that appears in infancy and remains present throughout life.
How do equilibrium reactions and righting reactions differ when they are "correcting" the body?
Equilibrium Reactions- restore whole body

Righting Reactions- restore one body part
What is neck righting? What part of the brain does this come from?
If you turn/roll the baby's body the head will come with it. The baby will right it's head on the body. You "right" the body. If you turn the body, the head and neck follow.
Mid-brain level
What is the difference between labyrinthe righting and TLR?
What is body righting on body mean?
If you turn the baby's pelvis the shoulders will follow. If you turn the pelvis, it's shoulders will follow.

(Turn part of the body the rest of the body follows)

Mid-brain level
What is labyrinth head righting?
If you tip the baby the head will always try and find the vertical. b/c of semi circular canals.
(Landau head up is part of labyrinth head righting.)

Mid-brain level
Optical Righting
Just as the labyrinth righting attempts to bring the head back to a vertical position, the optical righting will try to bring the eyes back to a position parallel to the floor.

Mid-brain level
Amphibian Reaction
Pull on the baby's dorsal side of the foot in prone and they will come into a flexor pattern and the baby will belly crawl on the floor if you do it to both sides.

Mid-brain level
listed as a righting and a reflex. It's dominated by both centers low and high.

Mid-brain level
This is where you hold the child prone, tip them down and their head will come up and the LE will extend. Present at 6 months and integrates 12-24 months.
Protective Extension
Tip the baby down and their arms come out like a parachute to break the fall and protect the head.

Mid-brain level
What are the characteristics of equilibrium reactions?
-Occurs with normal muscle tone

-balance response to changes in the COG(restores COG over BOS)

-Emerge ~6months

-Positive Reaction at one level indicates the next higher level of motor activity is possible. (need certain equilibrium reactions in order to develop normally)

-help individual maintain posture and balance when changing positions and when environment changes.

-Basis for higher level movement
What is the stimulus and response for equilibrium reactions?
Stimulus: displace COG
Response: trunk curvature, extension, and abd, protective extension.

(Abby's note: do not memorize. Know that they body will do what ever it has to do in order to restore equilibrium. Move trunk, arms and legs to make sure you stay put or fix problem.
What would happen if you try to push a baby from prone to supine at 4 mo of age?
The baby's body would not try to counteract the push b/c it would not have the equilibrium reaction yet.
Name the equilibrium reactions and the months at which they occur.

"Please sit still (in the) queue Sam"
Sitting -8
Which equilibrium reaction would you need to happen before you can creep?
creep takes place at 10 months and you would need the quadruped equilibrium reaction to take place.
What are the 4 stages of motor development?
mobility- the ability to move. this requires the ability to initiate movement and the ability to move through full range.
Example: moving the shoulder

Stability- (static equilibrium) WB
Example: bearing weight on shoulders or prone on elbows when the baby is beginning to develop stability

Mobility on Stability- this is when you are able to shift weight while WB.
Ex: shifting from right to left while prone on elbows

Controlled Mobility is when you weight shift on one side with the intention of lifting the contra-lateral extremity
Example: prone on elbows weight shifting to the right side (controlled mobility) to pick left side.

Skill-Picking up limb while having controlled mobility on the contra-lateral side.
Month By Month
Birth-1 year
Physiologic Flexion
Automatic stepping
reflexive grasp
No head control
Month By Month
2 Month Old

Can the baby roll from prone to supine yet?
Placing Has Gone Away (integrates at two months)

- diff raising head (just beginning)
- asymmetrical posture
-prone suspended-droopy (no landau)
Sitting- fully flexed meaning they would fall forward because they have not developed any back extensors yet.

The baby can roll from prone to supine by accident b/c of the ATNR. If the jaw side shoots out it can cause baby to "fall" over to supine
Month By Month
4 month old
-"Collects" himself (no longer a ball b/c he practiced picking up his head, started building up nec/back extensors in month 4

-Can roll from sidelying because he has some control of his head.

Still puppy prone b/c scapular muscles are not strong yet. Lacking stability/co-contractions/mm spindle
Can roll from prone to supine. now voluntary.

-Sitting more erect with UE support b/c back extensors are getting stronger

- WB on feet

-Can start to recognize faces and smiles
Month By Month
6 months
Prone: can extend UEs, wt.shift, and reach.
- pivot prone (strengthening extensors)
- landau (assoc w/labyrinth & optic)
(Now with practice they can start to pick up their arm and reach for things b/c they have gone through the stability stage, then mobility on stability, controlled mobility, to skill etc. they have the equilibrium reaction at 6 months prone, they have had 1 month of practice on elbows so they can move on elbows a bit and not fall over)

-Rolls Supine to prone (7 months on other chart)


-sitting with good ext and hands free but still need pillows for support

-standing: bounces a lot b/c of positive support

-language: picks out mothers voice, babbles, responds to his name.
Why are the baby bouncers not good for baby's?
It instill the positive support reflex and it will encourage rather than inhibit the reflex.
Month by month
8 Months
-Sitting independent with free arms. Has sitting equilibrium reactions and protective extension to the side. (but not extension to the back yet.

-prone-->quadruped--->might fall into side sitting-->sitting

-belly crawl

-grasp: from ulnar(8)to radial(9) and beginning opposition. (pinching 10)
Month by month
10 month
-1/2 kneels
-cruises (hold on walk sideways)
-walks (nat ave 15)
-Grasp: mature pinch, pokes with index finger (grasp more mature)
-Communication:jabbers, vocabulary of 3-10 words
What do you develop in kneeling?
Stability, mobility on stability, controlled mobility.
Based on the 4 motor development principals develop a simple exercise program for a hip patient
Mobility- abduction, adduction, flexion, extension
Stability (kneeling followed by half kneeling, then standing_
Mobility on Stability- weight shifting
Controlled Mobility- marching. (weightlifting to one side and lifting the opposite leg)
Skill- Walking

Side note: kneeling is for stability in the hip, stand in plantigrade for mobility in the knee and a bit in the ankle, before more weight on knee and ankle.
If the baby is just standing- stability.

If the baby is weight shifting he is developing mobility on stability

If the baby is walking he is developing controlled mobility by weighting shifting, with the intention of lifting the opposite leg, and skill, by moving the contralateral leg.
What stage of development am I?

not age
What are sequences of development?
flexion, prone ext, up on elbow, quadruped, to kneeling to half kneeling, etc. mobility stability, etc

These steps were developed by margaret rood and they are the basis of PNF. They are the sequences of movement that we use in PT when someone has a neurological disorder.

Like the sequences of development for children, we apply the same steps for someone with a hip fracture, etc.
What are two things that Margaret Rood is known for?
she developed the sequences of development for vital functions and for physical development.
During the first month of a baby's life they are in physiological flexion. Flexors are inhibited and extensors are inhibited. What does this mean about reflexes?
If the flexors are inhibited, it means that there are monosynaptic reflexes.

If the extensors are inhibited, it means that there is an inhibitory neuron; polysnaptic.
In the second month of life, the baby tries to pick it's head up. What righting reaction is responsible for this and why
Labyrinth head righting because the baby's head is trying to find vertical. This is designed for the baby to use their extensor muscles to make them stronger.
In month two, how did the baby get from supine to prone?
ATNR, flexion of the jaw side limb, extension of the skull side.
What are tonic muscles?

*hint* Abby's chicken story. White meat vs. dark meat.

muscles that do with posture cross 1 jt. These are muscles tend to be shorter that are able to hold a position for a longer duration. These are tonic muscles.
(dark meat, slower, and longer duration b/c they maintain posture.)

muscles that do mobility cross 2 jts, like the biceps and some of the wrist extensors. (White meat; wings in chicken. They move fast for mobility.)
Why would the palmer grasp need to be integrated by 9 months?
month 9 is when the baby goes into the quadruped position. If the grasp reflex present during quad position, the floor would act as a stimulus to the palm, and the baby would be on their fists.
When does stability in the hip start
? According to the notes it is listed under quadruped. WB stimulates co-contraction which works on stability.

But what about in sitting. Is the hip joint being loaded in sitting, particularly in the eighth month.
When does wrist extension begin?
Quadruped. 9 months.
In kneeling your COG is getting smaller and your BOS is getting higher why is this possible?
b/c developing more equilibrium
When does ankle stability begin?
in half-kneeling b/c it is the first time the ankle has had any WB. Now the ankle can begin to start the co-contraction around the joint.
What would be the problem if you went from kneeling to standing? (w/out half kneeling? )
Your ankles would be weak b/c it did not have a chance to work on stability in half-kneeling.