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59 Cards in this Set

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What are the two main advantages of sexual reproduction (besides being fun)?
1. Produces variety in offspring
2. Allows for adaptation to the environment
What are the primary reproduction organs responsible for?
1. Production of reproductive cells.
2. Secretion of sex hormones.
What temperature do sperm develop the best at?
34 degrees celsius.
What happens if the testicles do not descend?
The male will be sterile because the sperm will die at body temperature.
What are the tiny, coiled tissue inside the testes called and what do they produce?
Seminiferous tubules and they produce sperm.
What do interstitial cells produce?
Testosterone
Following the steps of spermatogenesis, name and state the number of chromosomes of the cell undergoing this process.
Spermatogonia (diploid, 46)
Primary spermatocytes (diploid, 46)
Secondary spermatogonia (23 double stranded)
Spermatids (23 single stranded)
What are the functions of sertoli cells?
Support cells found in the seminiferous tubules through nourishment, producing a fluid for their transport, and forming the blood testes barrier.
Name and describe the structures of a spermatozoa.
Head-contains a nucleus with genetic material, and a capsule containing acrosomes
midpiece- contains mitochondria that provide energy for movement
flagellum- organelle that provides motility for sperm
Give the function of the epididymis.
Site where sperm mature until they become motile.
Give the function of the vas deferens
a muscular tube that carries sperm from the epididymis to the urethra.
What is a vasectomy?
A medical procedure involving the removal of part of the vas deferens in order to prevent sperm from traveling through (sterility).
What is the function of the urethra?
Carries urine from the bladder and sperm from the vas deferens to the outside of the penis
What is the function of the ejaculatory duct?
Regulates the movement of semen into the urethra.
What prevents urine from being expelled at the same time as semen?
A sphincter in the urethra prevents this from happening.
What is another name for the foreskin?
prepuce
What is the cause of an erection? (in the body)
The stiffening and enlargening of the penis due to stimulation of the parasympathetic NS which causes arteries to the penis to dilate, increasing blood flow.
How might damage to the parasympathetic NS affect a man's ability to reproduce?
Can cause impotence (inability to get an erection)
What are the three structures in the male reproductive system that contribute to semen and what are those contributions?
1. Seminal vesicles- releases a fructose solution that nourishes sperm.
2. Prostate gland- firm, muscular organ that secretes an alkaline fluid with sodium bicarbonate that provide a buffer for the sperm
3. Cowper's gland- releases a mucous which cleanses the urethra and lubricates it
What secondary sex characteristics does testosterone cause in males?
1. facial and body hair
2. thickening of larynx
3. broad shoulders
4. increase muscle mass
5. indirectly involved in sperm producion
What are the primary sex organs in females and what are their functions?
The ovaries are the site of egg production and sex hormones.
Where is the site of fertilization?
In the upper 1/3rd of the oviducts.
What is an ectopic pregnancy?
When an egg embeds into the oviduct. Usually ends in miscarriage and infertility.
What are fimbriae?
Finger-like projections that sweep the ova from the ovaries into the fallopian tubes.
What is the uterus?
Pear-shaped organ where the embryo develops.
What are the characteristics of the myometrium (outer layer of uterus)
muscular, supports the developing embryo (blood rich), contracts during labour
What are the characteristics of the endometrium (inner layer of the uterus)?
embryo embeds in this layer, provides nutrients for the embryo, sheds during menstruation
What is a pap smear?
A swab taken of the cervix for cells that are examined for abnormalties.
What is the vagina?
Also known as the birth canal, it is the site of sexual intercourse and connects the uterus with the outside of the body.
What is a mammogram?
X-ray done that produces images of the inner breast and identifies cysts and cancerous cells.
What are the two types of follicle cells in the ovaries?
Primary oocytes (divides through meiosis into a mature oocyte) and granulosa cells (provide nutrients for oocytes).
What is the Grafian follicle?
The dominant follicle that develops during oogenesis.
What are the end results of oogenesis?
3 polar follicles and the grafian follicle (egg)
What do the left over polar bodies in the ovaries do?
They form the corpus luteum, which breaks down into the corpus albicans if no fertilization occurs after 14 days.
When does the placenta take over the job of the corpus luteum?
2-3 months into the pregnancy.
What is menopause and what are some side effects?
Menopause is when there are no more follicles left in a woman's reproductive cycle. This results in infertility, hot flashes, irritability and facial hair. Can be treated with hormones.
What are the four stages of the menstrual cycle and the hormones released at each stage?
Flow stage (all hormones low levels)
Follicular phase (estrogen)
Ovulatory phase (LH)
Luteal phase (estrogen and progesterone)
What is the function of FSH?
Stimulates the development of follicles and their production of estrogen.
What is the function of LH?
Causes ovulation from the grafian follicle and maintains the corpus luteum.
What is the function of estrogen?
Responsible for secondary female sex characteristics. Also the thickening of the endometrium.
What is the function of progesterone?
Thickening and maintaining of the endometrial layer, prevents further ovulation, and prevents uterine contractions.
Describe the flow phase
Days 1 to 5
starts with menstruation which is caused by a sudden reduction of estrogen and progesterone levels
Describe follicular phase
development of the follicle cells in the ovary, leads to the secretion of estrogen by the follicles, at the end of phase basal body temp spikes
Describe the ovulatory phase
due to the release of LH, causes the release of the secondary oocyte from the grafian follicle through the wall of the ovary
Describe the Luteal phase
ALWAYS 14 days
the remaining follicular cells differentiate into the corpus luteum which produces progesterone and estrogen, these hormones prepare the uterus for a fertilized egg, if pregnancy does not occur these hormones lower and cause uterine contractions that cause menstruation
How does the birth control pill work?
It release progesterone, which inhibits the release of LH and FSH, preventing ovulation
What is cleavage?
Divisions of a cell
What is a blastocyst?
A fertilized egg that is embedded in the endometrium
What is the ectoderm and what does is differentiate into?
Outer layer of the developing blastocyst. It develops into skin, hair, nails, brain, lens, retina, cornea, cochlea, semicircular canals, teeth, inside lining of the mouth
What is the chorion?
The outer membrane of the embryonic structure. Releases hCG and maintains the corpus luteum for the first 3 months of pregnancy. It eventually forms part of the placenta.
What is the amnion?
Inner membrane, fluid filled embryonic structure, fluid called amniotic fluid which surrounds the embryo and provides cushion.
What is the mesoderm?
The middle layer of cells that divide to become muscles, blood vessels, blood, kidneys, reproductive structures, cartilage and bone.
What is the endoderm?
The inner layer of cells that divide to produce the liver, pancreas, thyroid, parathyroid, urinary bladder, lining of the digestive system and respiratory tract.
How is placenta formed?
From the endometrium and the chorion layer.
What is the function of placenta?
To provide a bridge for the diffusion of wastes and nutrients between mother and child. Also acts as a barrier preventing the diffusion of proteins and blood cells.
What is the allantois?
provides blood vessels in the placenta.
What are the hormones involved in paturition and what are their functions?
1. Relaxin- helps relax the cervix and allow it to dilate (thought to be influenced by oxytocin)
2. Oxytocin- as the baby moves into the birth canal this triggers stretch receptors that signal the posterior to release oxytocin, which causes forceful uterine contractions
3. Prostaglandins- produced in the uterine wall and trigger strong contractions
What are the different delivery types?
natural, breech (feet or bum first), c-section, episiotomy (cutting of the vaginal opening)
What is colustrum?
Breast milk without milk fats, rich in antibodies.