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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
biological diversity
refers to variety of species, gene types, ecosystems, ecosystem processes
Number of species identified
1.8 milllion
(4-100 million species)
Why cant identify species
-places we cant go
-small varieties
-$$
Domains
classify living things based on cellular similarities
-Eukaryotes
-Prokaryotes
-Archea
Eukaryotes
true nucleus
Archea
nuclei and organelles
extreme conditions
EXTREMOPHILES
prokaryote
before nucleus
kingdoms
classify based on anatomical similarities
Eukaryota
animalia, plantae, fungi, protista
prokaryota
monera (i.e. bacteria)
natural selection
has lead to lifes variety
-some individuals of a pop have genetically based traits that enhance their ability to survice and produce offspring
biological evolution
process whereby earths life changes over time through changes in genes of populations
Charles Darwin
"On the Origin of species by means of natural selection"

(Alfred Wallace)
Fossil records
mineralized or petrified replicas of sleletons, bones, teeth, shells, leaves, seeds, or impressions
PROVIDE EVIDENCE
mutations
random changes in the structure or number of DNA molecules in a cell that cna be inherited by offspring
adaptation
an inheritable trait that enables an individual organism to survive through natural selection and to reproduce more than other individuals
differential reproduction
enables individuals to leave mroe offspring than others in a population
common myths of nat selection
-survival of fittest-survival of strongest
-organisms change voluntarily
-life is approaching biological perfection
when environmental conditions change species...
-adapt
-migrate
-become extinct
geographic processes effecting nat selection
-tectonic plate shifting
-earthquakes
-climate change
-catastrophic events
speciation
two species arise from one
-"New" type cant breed with old
-extinction
geographic isolation
occurs when different groups of the same population
reproductive isolation
mutation and change by nat selection operate indepedently in the gene pools of geographically isolated populations.
background extinction
species disappearing at a low rate
mass extinction
a significant rise in extinction rates above backgroung level
species diversity
richness and evenness
species richness
number of different species an ecosystem contains
species evenness
relative abundance of individuals wihtin each of those species
ecological niche
role a species plays in its ecosystem
keystone species
have a large effect on abundances and types of other species in an ecosystem
foundation species
major role in shaping comunitie3s by creating and enhancing their habitats in ways that benefit other species
interspecific competition
members of two or more species interect to gain access to the same limited resources
predation
a member of a species feeds directly on all or part of a member of another species
parasitism
one organism feeds on the body or energy of another organism
mutualism
interaction that benefits both species by providing each with food, shelter or other resources
resource partitioning
some species evolve to reducing niche overlap
(warblers in same tree)
Population dynamics
-distributions
-numbers
-age structure
-density
distribution
how members are dispersed in one area
-clumping
-uniform
-random
age structure
-post reproductive
-reproductive
-pre-reproductive
numbers
(B+I)-(D+E)
biotic potential
capacity for population growth under ideal conditions
intrinsic rate of increase
rate at which the population of a species would grow if it had unlimited resources
evironmental resistance`
factors that limit growth of populations
carrying capacity
k-maximum pop of a species that a habitat can sustain
logistic growth
rapid exponential increase in pop followed by steady decrease until pop levels off.
density dependant factors
predation, parasitism
disease, competition for mates+resources
density independent factors
weather, fire, pollution, habitat loss, flood, catastrophies
r-selected species
porduce many offspring, few survive, numbers remain small
k-selected species
long life spans, produce later in life, small number of offspring
patters of population size
-stable
-irrupt
-cyclic
-irregular
ecological succession
gradual change is species composition
primary succession
gradual establishment of biotic communities in lifeless areas where there is no soil or bottom sediment
secondary succession
a series of species and organism develop in a place containing soil or bottom sediment
Factors contributing to human pop growth
-expansion into new habitats
-agriculture feeds more people
-medical technology & sanitation
Most populated countries
-China- 1.3 bill
-India- 1.1 bill
-USA- 300 mill
fertility rate
number of children born to a woman during her lifetime
cultural carrying capacity
optimum sustainable population
total fertility rate
average number of children born to a woman in a population during their reproductive years