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121 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A systemic reaction with generalized itching and tingling sensation, and a feeling of apprehension.
Collapsed alveoli.
Spasm of the bronchial smooth muscles.
Absence of breathing for a period of time.
Respiratory rate slower than normal.
Characteristic breathing which stops and resumes.
Bluish decoloration of skin and mucous membranes due to excessive concentration of reduced hemoglobin in the blood.
Shortness of breath or labored breathing.
Difficulty in expanding the chest and drawing air into lungs.
Expansional Dyspnea
Difficulty or painful wheesing expiration in asthma.
Expirational Dyspnea
Regular, easy breathing with a rate of 12-22/min.
To breathe out.
Bloody sputum.
Diminished availability of oxygen to the body tissues.
Overbreathing, breathing too rapidly or deeply, increase of depth and rate of respiration.
Hyperventilation or Hyperpnea
Insufficient oxygenation of the blood.
Excess of carbon dioxide in the blood.
Deep, rapid, or labored breathing.
Shallow or slow respirations.
Shallow, slow, irregular respirations.
Interference in passage of air into lungs as in an obstruction.
Inspirational Dypnea
Breathing comfortably only when in an upright position.
Mucous produced by the lining of the respiratory tract.
Respiratory distress occurring in attacks without apparent cause, usually during sleep at night.
Paroxysmal/Nocturnal Dyspnea
Noisy respiration, a crowing sound.
Mucous and saliva coughed up from the respiratory passages.
Respiration rate faster and more shallow than normal.
Noisy respiration, a whistling sound.
Relates to diaphragm.
Word ending that means breathing.
Unpredictable, Irregular caused by resp. depression and brain damage (medulla).
Fast, normal, or slow, but caused by metabolic acidosis.
Pitch: High
Intensity: Loud, predominantly on expiration.
Normal findings: A sound like air blown though a hollow tube, heard over suprasternal area and lower trachea or mainstem bronchus.
Abnormal findings: If heard over peripheral lung, may indicate atelectasis or consolidation.
Bronchial Breath Sound
Pitch: Moderate
Intensity: Moderate
Normal findings: A blowing sound heard over airways on either side of sternum, at angle of Louis, and b/w scapulae.
Abnormal findings: If ehard of peripheral lung may indicate consolidation.
Bronchovesicular Breath Sound
Pitch: High on inspiration, low on expiration.
Intensity: Loud on inspiration, soft to absent on expiration.
Normal findings: Quiet, rustling sounds, heard of periphery.
Abnormal findings: If decreased over periphery, may indicate early pneumonia, emphysema, pneumothorax, pleural effusion, or atelectasis.
Vesicular Breath Sound
Where to auscultate: Over lung fields and airways; heard in lung bases first with pulmonary edema.
Timing: More obvious during inspiration.
Cause: Moisture, especially in small airways an alveoli.
Description: Bubbling, Non-Musical; Fine, Medium, & Coarse (NOT CLEARED BY COUGH-KEY POINT)
Crackles (Rales)
(Adventitious)-not normal
Where to auscultate: Over larger airways
Timing: More pornounced during expiration.
Cause: Airways narrowed by bronchospasm or secretions.
Description: Coarse rattling, louder and lower-pitched than crackles; Sonorous, musical, and CAN be cleared by cough.
Rhonchi (Gurgles)
(Adventitious)-not normal
Where to auscultate: Over lung fields and airways.
Timing: Inspiration or expiration, usually louder on expiration.
Cause: Narrowed airways; Asthma, COPD, Bronchitis.
Description: Creaking, whistling; high-pitched, Musical squeaks.(Does NOT clear with cough.)
Where to auscultate: Front and side of the lung field.
Timing: Inspiration (Louder in anterior and lateral surface)
Cause: Inflamed parietal and visceral pleural surfaces rubbing together.
Description: Dry grating or squeaking; (Does NOT clear with cough.)
Pleural Friction Rub
Filters air, warming, moistening, and chemically examining it for impurities that might irritate the mucous lining of the respiratory tract.
Any one of the air cavities in various bones around the nose, such as the frontal sinuses in the frontal bone.
Paranasal sinuses
The throat, serves as a passageway for the respiratory and digestive tracts.
The uppermost of the three regions of the throat, situated behind the nasal cavity and extending from the posterior nares to the level above the soft palate.
One of three anatomic divisions of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth and is continuous above with the nasopharynx and laryngopharynx.
One of the three regions of the throat, extending from the hyoid bone to the esophagus.
The organ of voice that is part of the upper air passage cnnecting the pharynx with the trachea. Also known as the Adam's Apple.
Larynx (voice box)
Cylindrical tube in the neck, composed of C-shaped cartilage and membrane, that extends from the larynx at the level of the sixth cervical vertebra to the fifth thoracic vertebra, where it divides into 2 bronchi, it also conveys air to the lungs.
Trachea (windpipe)
Any one of several large air passages in the lungs through whichpass inhaled air and exhaled air.
Bronchi(2 Branches)
Point where 2 Branches of Bronchi divide.
A small airway of the respiratory system extending from the bronchi into the lungs that allows the exchange of air and waste gases.
In the lung the small hairlike structures wave mucus, pus, anddust upward.
Air sacs in lung tissue.
One of a pair of light, spongy organs in the thorax, constituting the main component of the respiratory system.
The difference in (blank) b/w the pleural space and the outside air prevents lungs from collapsing on exhalation. (KEY POINT)
The process of moving gases in to and out of the lungs.
How do assess ventilation?
Observe rate, depth, and rhythm of ventilatory mvmt's.
Periodic deep inspiration.
Absence of breathing for a period of time caused by a physical blockage in the upper airways.
Obstructive Apnea
The distribution of red blood cells to and from the pulmonary capillaries.
How do you assess lung perfusion?
Using diagnostic tests to measure O2 and CO2 levels in arterial blood.
The movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
How do you assess diffusion?
The same way you assess perfusion b/c diffusion is an interdependent component of perfusion.
What provides blood TO the lungs and is essential for lung perfusion?
Pulmonary Artery
What is a physical characteristic affecting the fingers that is linked to long term COPD?
What does Orthopnea suggest in a pt. suffering from it?
Left ventricular failure or mitral stenosis, but may also accompany obstructive lung disease.
What is a ciliary action that normally keeps debris out of the respiratory tract?
Other than a respiratory tract problem, what other problem may be represented by a cough?
Tranlucent, white, or gray sputum
Yellow or greenish sputum
Sputum that is both, translucent, white, or gray, and yellow or greenish
What is the key symptom in pulmonary tuberculosis?
Hemoptysis (bloody sputum)
Factors that contribute to the prevention of inflammation to the upper respiratory tract...
1. Refrain from smoking
2. Frequent hand washing
3. Avoiding crowds
This sets the chest wall and underlying structures in motion, producing audible sounds and palpable vibrations, also helps to determine whether underlying tissues are air-filled, fluid-filled, or solid, does not help detect deep seated lesions.
What is the most important examining technique for assessing airflow through the tracheobronchial tree?
What does auscultation involve?
1.Listening to sounds generated by breathing.
2.Listening to any adventitious(added) breath sounds.
3. If abnormalities are suspected, listening to the sounds of the pt's spoken or whispered voice as the are transmitted through the chest wall.
All abnormal breath sounds are called (blank).
Fiberoptic rigid and flexible endoscope used for direct inspection and examination of tissue, to take specimens, remove foreign bodies, diagnose bleeding site, destroy and excise lesions in the lungs.
NPO 6 h prior
IV sedation and O2
Aseptic not sterile
Radiological procedure that is non-invasive and less expensive than a bronchoscopy.
Chest x-ray:
Remove undergarments and jewelry in chest region.
Wear hospital gown.
A test done in nuclear medicine to assess lung ventilation and perfusion.
V-Q scan
Involves use of IV radioactive dye if pt. not allergic.
Perfusion Scan
Involves inhalation of radioactive gases.
Ventilation Scan
Laboratory test for the detection of pathogenic organisms.
Sputum Studies
Test commonly done w/ bacteria
Gram Staining:
Results typically take 48 hours
Cultures for fungus and Mycobacterium may take up to how long?
6-8 weeks
What is the point of obtaining and early morning sputum specimen? (KEY POINT)
Because secretions pool overnight and are less likely to be contaminated.
Procedure to remove pleural fluids, instill medications, or obtain fluid for diagnostic studies.
Lg. bore needle inserted into pleural cavity
CXR a and p
Pt. MUST sit very still!!
Auscultate breath sounds frequently.
Observe for rapid breathing, cyanosis, change in breath sounds, and tachypnea
Test done by R.T. dept. to determine the volume of air lung can hold, rate of flow of air in/out of lung and elasticity or compliance of lung.
Pulmonary Function Test (PFT)
NON-invasive inexpensive method of evaluating arterial oxygen saturation
PRIMARY blood test for the evaluation of oxygenation
Normal values for Hemoglobin
Adult Male:14-18 g/dl
Adult Female:12-16 g/dl
Pregnant Fem: >11 g/dl
<8.0 g/dl-require blood transfusion
Critical Values for Hgb:
<5.0 g/dl or >20 g/dl
The evaluation of a pt's Hgb level should be part of what assessment? (KEY POINT)
Respiratory: an objective assessment item.
Close relationships with other people.
Key points of interdependence are...
Affectional adequacy and aloneness
What position best supports breathing?
High Fowler's
Respiration characterized by deep inspirations followed by prolonged expirations through pursed lips, done to increase expiratory airway pressure, improve oxygenation of blood, and help prevent early airway closure.
Pursed-lip breathing (promotes CO2 elimination)
A form of assisted or controlled respiration produced by a ventilatory apparatus in which compressed gas is delivered under positive pressure into a person's airways until a preset pressure is reached.
IPPB (intermittent positive-pressure breathing):
Prevent post-op atelectasis
Promote full lung expansion
Improve oxygenation
Administer nebulized meds
A method of encouraging voluntary deep breathing by providing visual feedback about inspiratory volume using a specially designed spirometer, this reduces the risk of atelectasis and pulmonary consolidation.
Incentive Spiromety
A catheter inserted through the rib space of the thorax intothe pleural space to remove air and/or fluid, therby restoring negative pressure in the pleural space, it is also hooked up to a water-seal device or suction.
Chest Tube
What is one of the primary complications of decreased mobility?
Stagnation of respiratory secretions
What does a pneumothorax patient experience b/c of pleural air collapsing the lung? (KEY POINT
Types of suctioning include:
Suctioning removes secretions, but it also removes...
How long is it appropriate for suctioning...
10 sec or less and on normal exhalation.
Methods for mobilizing pulmonary excretions are...
Chest physiotherapy
1.Adequate oral fluid intake is necessary to thin secretions
2. 2,000-3,000cc of water is a good range
3.Ideal intake is body wt. (lb) divided by 2= # of ounces of H20 to be consumed daily
1.In the event of inadequate oral hydration or airway drying by other sources (intubation) additional humidification may be provided to the patient either via room humidifier or addition of an inline humidifier to oxygen therapy.
Method of administering medication by spraying it into the respiratory passages of the pt. May be given with or without O2.
Types of Chest Physiotherapy:
Postural Drainage
Use of positioning to drain secretions fro specific segments of the bronchi and the lungs into the trachea, Coughing then clears secretions from the trachea
Postural Drainage
What is the primary purpose when performing postural drainage? (KEY POINT)
To best position the patient for the use of gravity!
Involves striking the chest wall over the area to be drained, and is typically done with cuppped hands.
Fine shaking pressure applied to chest wall to increase exhalation of trapped air and shake mucus loose and induce cough
What is the primary purpose for using percussion and vibration over an area of the lung? (KEY POINT)
To help break up tenacious secretions.
Inherited autosomal-recessive disorder of the exocrine glands primarily in the pancreas respiratory system, and sweat glands, characterized by abnormally thick secretions of mucus.
Cystic Fibrosis
Precipitated by ventricular fibrillation or ventricular asystole
Cardiac Arrest
Necrosis of a portion of cardiac muscle caused by and obstruction in a coronary artery either by atherosclerosis, thrombus, or a spasm
Myocardial Infarction (MI)-heart attack
What should be your FIRST response when an individual reports severe chest pain?
Keep pt. at rest and call 911
How does Thoephylline improve oxygenation? (KEY POINT)
By promoting relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle, thereby relieving bronchospasm.
What are Bronchodilators famous for? (KEY POINT)
Raising the baseline heart rate.
Class:Anticholinergics,Corticosteroids, and Expectorants
Indication: Eliminates or reducest congestion or swelling
Action: stimulate sympathetic nervous system
Side Effects: drowsiness, drymouth, tachycardia