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37 Cards in this Set

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Matter
Anything that takes up space and has mass
Element
Substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions
Compound
Substance consisting of two or more elements combined in a fixed ratio
Trace Elements
Those required by an organism in only minute quantities
Atom
smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties ot an element
John Dalton
British scientist who helped develop atomis theory around 1800. The atomic theory measures the mass of atoms and subatomic particles
Atomic Number
Number of protons found in the nuclei of an element
Mass Number
The sum of protons plus netrons in the nucleus of an atom
Atomic Weight
The approximation of the total mass of an atom
Isotopes
One of several atomic forms of an element each containing a diffrent number of neutrons and thus giving a diffrent atomic mass
Radioactive Isotope
An isotope that is unstable, the nucleus decays spontaniously, giving of detectable particles and energy
Energy
The capacity to do work
Potencial Energy
The energy stored by matter as a result of its location or spatial arrangement
Energy Levels
The diffrent states of potential energy for electrons in an atom
Electron Shells
An evergy level representing the distance of an electron from the nucleus of an atom
Valence Electron
Electrons in the outer most electron shell
Valence Shell
The outermost energy of an atom containing the valence electrons involved in the chemical reactions of that atom
Chemical Bonds
An attraction between two atoms resulting from a sharing of outer-shell electrons or the presence of opposite chrges on the atoms the bonded atoms gain complete outer electron shells
Covalent Bonds
A type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one pair of valence electrons
Molecule
Two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
Structural Formula
A type of molecularnotation in which the constituent atoms are joined by lines representing covalent bonds
Molecular Formula
A type of molecular notation indicating only the quantity of the contituent atons
Double Covalent Bond
A type of covalent bond in which two atoms share two pairs of electrons smbolized by a pair of lines between the bonded atoms
Valence
The bonding capacity of an atom generally equal to the number of unpaired electrons in the atom's outermost shell
Electronegativity
The attraction of an atom for the electrons of a covalent bond
Nonpolar covalent bonds
A type of covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally between two atsoms of similar electronegativity
Polar covalent bonds
A type of covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity The shared electrons are pulles closer to the more electronegative atom making it slightly negative and the other atom slightly positive
Ion
An atom that has gained or lost electrons thus acquiring a charge
Cation
An ion with a positive charge produced by the loss of one or more electrons
Anion
A negitively charged ion
Ionic Bonds
A chemical bond resulting from the attraction between oppositly charged ions
Ionic compounds
Compounds resulting from the formation of ionic bonds,also known as salt
Hydrogen Bonds
A type of weak chemical bond formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule
Chemical reactions
A process leading to chemical changes in matter, involves the makind and/or breaking of chemical bonds
reactants
The starting material in a chemical reactions
Products
An ending material in a chemical reation
Chemical equalibrium
In a reversible chemical reaction the point at whthe rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction