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51 Cards in this Set

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What is redemption
Southern democratic term for the end of reconstruction and the return of white southern democratic rule to the south. this restoration of "home rule" occurred gradually, state by state between 1870 and 1877 when reconstruction ended
white supremecy re-established during reconstruction ending.
black codes
laws passed by southern states under johnsonian reconstruction in 1865 which limited the rights of blacks and attempted to control the actions of freedmen socially, politically, and economically. these controls included the denial of the right to vote, vagrancy laws, harsh penal codes and generally threatened blacks with second class citizenship so that slavery could be restored in all but name. such actions convinced many in the north that southerners were not repentant and not prepared to live up to the principles of liberty and equality for all leading to more support for the radical republicans and a refusal by congress to readmit the new souther state government.
laws restricting black rights.
13th amendment
ratified in december 1865, which made slavery unconstitutional in the United States. This is significant because it shows tht the objectives of the civil war changed as the war proceeded so that by the end its goal was not simply to preserve the union but to promote the ideals of liberty and equality for all.
when was it ratified and what was its significance.
14th amendment
ratified in 1868 which repaired one of the major deficiencies of the Bill of Rights and thereby expanded the definition of liberty in the US prior to the 14 amendment, individual rights and liberties were protected from abrdgment by the national government but not by the states. the amendment set limits on state powers with 3 clauses. The citizenship clause, the due process clause and equal protection clause.
when was it ratified, what did it do for the bill of rights and what are the 3 clauses?
15th amendment
ratified in 1870, which forbade states to deny the vote to any male because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Republicans advocated this because they feared that without the black vote, republicans could not win national elections. the negative wording of the 15th amendment made it possible for southerners to disfranchise blacks and gain control of policy, as shown by plessy v. ferguson and segregation.
when was it ratified, without it what did it do for the republicans and what was the outcome of the negative wording?
northerners who moved south after the civil war for idealistic and materialistic purposes and who were so named by southerners to discredit them as scoundrels and thieves. as republicans, they came into control of some southern state and municipal governments during reconstruction. they were accused of corruption partly because there was corruption but more often because their policies of rebuilding the south were unpopular and even more because these governments included blacks.
what were they, why did the south dislike them.
compromise of 1877
agreement between southern democrats and northern republicans which brought an end to reconstruction by allowing the election of rutherford hayes in return for the withdrawal of the remaining troops from the south, appointment of a former confederate general to the Hayes cabinet, federal aid for the railroad development in the south, and a free hand for southerners in regard to race relations. it represents the new alliance between northern business oriented republicans and well to do southern whites at the expense of blacks and the ideal of equality for all.
what did it allow and what are the 4 things in return for this, and what did this bring to the blacks?
debt peonage
a perpetual indebtedness tying the debtor to the land which resulted from tenant farmers buying supplies on credit based on future crops. this produced social subordination and provided an economic basis for segregation and second class citizenship for blacks.
what were the debtors tied to and what did this do to the blacks?
new south
a phrase made famous by henry grady of atlanta constitution in 1884 which represented a vision of the south as modern, progressive and self sufficient by those who urged the south to abandon its dependence on cotton and industrialize and economically diversify. the south did diversify economically and grew industrially but such a relatively slow pace compared to the north in the late 19th century that it actually became more dependent on cotton. the new south also came to represent policies of small government which translated into few state prisons and no public schools and policies of racial segregation.
this phrase made famous by who and when? what was the vision to become less dependent on and to what? but what happened?
rural myth
the notion that the farmer and farm life symbolized the essence of america, that farmers were independent, self sufficient, and non materialistic, and that farm life was pleasant, peaceful and satisfying.
what did this notion about farmers?
homestead act
act passed in 1862 which granted 160 acres of government land to any adult who lived on a claim for five years or who paid $1.25 an acre after six months of residence. this act was intended to increase opportunities for the common man and promote the interests of free men
when was it passed and what did it grant to people after a period of time or payed what for 6 months? what was its intent?
plessy v. ferguson
supreme court decision of 1895 which paved the way for legal segregation by declaring that "separate but equal" facilities for blacks did not violate the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment.
when was it and what was the effect on the blacks?
dawes severalty act or dawes act
legislation passed in 1887 intended to end the problems of the native americans and assimilate them into the majority culture by giving land and citizenship to individual native americans thereby destroying tribal bonds and their communal culture. each native american, after renouncing tribal allegiance, received an allotment from the tribal reservation which would be held in trust for twenty tive years at the end of which time he would receive full title and full rights of citizenship. designed by well intentioned reformers, the act reflected the racism of the late 19th century and rather than protecting native americans, undermined their position by giving whites an opportunity to redistribute to whites tribal lands remaining after allotment.
when was it passed? and what was this supposed to do for the native americans? what were they supposed to get but what did it reflect and what did it do instead?
"jim crow" laws
state laws in the south which segregated blacks from whites first in public facilities and ultimately in all aspects of life. the south passed these laws beginning about 1890 and primarily ending by 1915, but by then southerners treated segregation as if it were a folkway which had always existed and, as an extension of nature, must always exist. Hence, these laws became a support for discrimination and prejudice and the argument that laws were useless folly because legal measures could never affect folkways, the way people naturally felt and acted.
what did these laws do to the blacks. when did they begin and end... but when it ended what happened and what did these laws support?
"atlanta compromise"
speech delivered by Booker T. Washington at the Atlanta Exposition of 1895 in which he laid out a policy of accommodation suggesting that blacks should focus first on self development and the economic development of the south but not on immediate access to the vote, civil rights, and social equality with whites all of which would come later almost automatically. this position supported, if only inadvertently, the whites policy of segregation. it also represents one of two main strains of thought within the black community, one calling for complete equality and full participation now and one calling for black pride and self development and even separation from the majority culture.
who gave this speech and when? what did he propose the black community do. what did it support and what 2 mainstream thoughts after this?
crop lien
the use of future crops to guarantee loans farmers contracted from merchants so they could plant crops and support their families until harvest time. this system contributed to peonage or perpetual indebtedness even among farmers in the south who owned their own land.
what was this? and what did it contribute to?
literacy test
a test which required citizens to read and interpret a part of the state constitution in order to register to vote which was used in the south to disenfranchise blacks.
what was this test used for and what did it do for blacks?
interstate commerce commission
regulatory commission established by the interstate commerce act of 1887 which had the power to investigate and prosecute railroad corporations that charged unfair rates or engaged in illegal practices. Congress passed this in response to public pressure after the supreme court in wabash, st. louis and pacific RR V. Illinois ruled that the granger laws were unconstitutional because they were state laws regulating interstate commerce whereas the latter can be regulated only by the national government.
poll tax
a tax which had to be paid each year to retain the right to vote which was used to disenfranchise poor blacks in the south
what was it and what was it used for?
wabash case
this case decided by the supreme court in 1886, a decision which reversed Munn v. Illinois and declared unconstitutional state laws regulating the railroads. using narrow interpretation of the constitution, the court drew a distinction between interstate and intrastate commerce and noted that only the federal government could control inerstate commerce in which railroads are engaged. this tended to create an area of ambiguity in the law, allowing the railroads to operate more freely. it also reflected the conservative view that property rights are a kind of natural right.
southern farmers alliance
agricultural reform organization of the 1880s which called for measures to improve the quality of rural life, regulation of monopolies in the intersts of farmers and inflation of the currency
munn v. illinois
the first of the "granger cases" in which the supreme court upheld state laws regulating railroads and grain elevators within their boundaries on the basis of the social contract theory that when individuals became members of society, they give up some freedom for security and therefore businesses affected with "a public interest" cannot act in simply in their own self interest but must consider the public well being. the court found the granger laws to be a legitimate expression of the state police power to protect that public well being.
company town
town owned by the company where management controlled all aspects of workers lives. these were designed to meet all the workers needs and prevent union organization and strikes. one of the most famous in the late 19th century was pullman, illinois. these towns reveal the pwerlessness of the workers and their lack of choices and independence.
vertical integration
adding operations before or after the production process to gain control of all phases of an industry. this involved controlling all aspects of a business from the extraction of raw materials to marketing. it acquired a more positive reputation than horizontal integration because gaining control of distribution seemed to be the result of the needs of the product and customer rather than just the desire to control price and increase profits. its significance is it shows how many of the great entrepreneurs of the late 19th century were organizers rather than technically expert in their product and how in the process of seeking to improve efficiency, increase sales and insure profits they built bigger aoperations which eliminated competition.
a discriminatory practice of the railroads which favored shippers with large laods, regular shipments and terminal to terminal destinations over shippers with small loads sent irregularly from small owns. the rebate was a secret refund of a portion of the rate charged for transportation and allowed shippers to avoid lowering prices generally and to circumvent agreements with other shippers (made to reduce competition" and attract the best customers for themselves. they led to the adoption of railroad pools and then to the interstate commerce act of 1887.
informal agreements among competitors in the 1860s and 70s to set uniform rates, divide markets, and share profits thereby eliminating competition and establishing monopolistic conditions. railroad pools were the most famous but the whiskey coal and tobacco industries also created pools. the interstate commerce act outlawed railroad pools in 1887 but after 1881 trusts had begun to replace pools as the preferred means of eliminating competition.
horizontal integration
combinations of businesses in the same field in an effort to monopolize one stage of production in an industry. one of the best and most successful examples of this was john d. rockefellers standard oil company which dominated the oil refining industry by the 1870s.
new immigration
immigrants from southern and eastern europe who were primarily jewish and catholic in religion who came to the US in large numbers after 1880. the US became much more diversified causing a rise in social tensions in the cities, greater suspicion of unskilled workers and labor unions, and a rise in nativist sentiment (fear and hatred of foreigners) including calls for limits on immigration based on arguments of racial deterioration and national ruin.
what religion were the primary immigrants and when did they come? what did this cause in the US?
bread and butter issues
labor issues such as higher wages, shorter hours, industrial safety, benefits, and the right to organize and bargain collectively. this was the focus of the american federation of labor under samuel gompers and under this program the AFL abandoned political reform, cooperated with big business, left out the vast majority of unskilled workers, and made labor unions in the US supporters of the existing political and economic system. Hence, the US has no labor or workers or socialist political party.
what 5 labor issues did this involve? what did they abandon?
knights of labor
labor organization founded in 1869 by Uriah S. Stephens which organized all workers on a geographic basis, proposed a cooperative system of production be established alongside the existing competitive system, and worked for a wide variety of other labor, political and social reforms. Because it emphasized political change and because it included all workers, it had difficulty organizing strikes. it began to decline in influence in 1886 when two strikes failed, when the skilled workers began to leave and form the american federation of labor and when the knights became associated in the public mind with the haymarket riot of 1886 which led to accusations of political radicalism.
american federation of labor
federation of craft unions founded in 1881 by samuel gompers which broke with the knights of labor in 1886 and which organized skilled workers only and avoided political reforms while emphasizing immediate, realizable "bread and butter" goals. This left the vast majority of workers, who were unskilled, without effective organization until the 1930s
founded by whom and when? only whom was allowed and what did they realize? what happened to the rest of the people?
social gospel
socio-religious movement led by protestants, beginning in the 1880s to tie salvation to the improvemtn of society and to make christianity relevant to industrial and urban problems. It was said the poor were responsible for their own poverty; if faithful, their reward would come in heaven. the churches should take action in the community and government should regulate factories and utilities.
led by whom and when to do what? what was a saying of the poor and what was the church and government to do?
practice of politicians rewarding political supporters with office. also known as the spoils system which beginning with andrew jackson in 1829 became the primary method of appointing people to governmental positions in the 19th century.
protective tariff
tax on imported goods designed to protect american businessment, wage earners and farmers from the competition and products of foreign labor. this policy became an important sign of the power of big business in the late 19th century and one of the primary ways which government served business interests, contrary to the theory of laissez faire. beginning with the morrill tariff of 1861, the tariff was high and with a few exceptions such as the underwood tariff of 1913, generally moved higher until 1934.
U.S. v E.C. Knight Co.
supreme court decision of 1895 which ruled that the american sugar refining company was not in violation of the sherman anti trust act because the sherman act applied only to commerce, not manufacturing. the sherman act banned "conspiracies in restraint of trade" but the court put a narrow interpretation on this phrase, ruling that the federal government only controlled interstate commerce, so manufacturing was not covered unless the assembly process crossed a state line. this ruling virtually nullified the sherman act in all manufacturing cases and allowed consolidation of industries and the formation of trusts to continue. this decision shows how in the late 19th century, business influenced government and the government sided with big business.
gospel of wealth
andrew carnegies article in 1887, and argument that individuals should have the freedom to become wealthy and amass fortunes but that the wealthy then had an obligation to use their fortunes for the benefit of society. this argument reflects the paternalistic, class oriented, social darwinist thinking of the late 19th century which accepts the idea that the world is a predatory place in which the ablest take what they can and then can help the poor indirectly when they would not help the poor directly.
social darwinism
herbert spencers adaptation of charles darwins biological concepts of natural selection and "survival of the fittest" to human society. it says nature has ordained a kind of inevitable progress based on competition and struggle and that those who succeed are the fittest. any government action or interference in this struggle would prevent progress. any behavior in the marketplace is justified and the fittest in human terms soon came to mean that some people, countries and races were superior to others. social darwinism promoted racism by giving it a pseudo scientific basis.
free silver
unlimited coinage of silver to inflate the currency which was demanded by the populists and the Democrats in the election of 1896. this represents the attraction which a panacea offered to farmers and others suffering from deflation and the depression following the Panic of 1893. it allowed business leaders and the republicans to paint the populists as irresponsible and therefore bury and ignore the populists general demand that the government should be more democratic and more responsible for the well being of the society at large. it convinced the middle class the populists were irrational and dangerous cuz free silver would ruin the economy. in effect, big business and middle class's hope of achieving wealth for themselves won the election of 1896
boss government
government in the cities by political machines which dispensed political jobs and favors in return for votes and contributions. these governments are representative of the corruption in government, business, and society in the gilded age and after. they reflect the widespread belief in social darwinism according to which people should be free to act in their own self interest. the bosses did offer help to the immigrants and the poor but at a cost to democracy by buying their vote and by wasting public monies through corrupt bargains with unscrupulous individuals and businesses.
sherman antitrust act
measure passed in 1890 which made ombinations and conspiracies in restraint of trade illegal. the first of several acts designed to prevent monopolistic practices and restore competition, this act proved strong regulatory body existed to enforce it and the supreme court took a probusiness position and ruled that it did not apply to manufacturing monopolies. The court did apply it to labor unions and strikes which were then suppressed.
mahan, alfred t
naval officer, strategist and historian who argued, in books such the influence of sea power on history that the national power depended on naval supremacy, colonies and foreign markets. he called for the US to have a two ocean navy, strategically placed coaling stations around the world, a canal in central america, and control over the access routes to that canal in the caribbean and the pacific. his ideas became the basis for the republican foreign policy platform in 1896 and for roosevelts policies in the early 1900s.
one of the most successful third party movements in US history, it was composed of farmers, westerners, workers and small businessment who organized as a political party in 1891 and called for reforms which would have made the national government more responsible for the well being of the society as a whole. the movement died after the populists joined the democrats in nominating william jennings bryan for president partly because their political opponents discredited them as radicals and fools because of their demand for "free silver" which the industrialists claimed would ruin the economy. that argument did tend to overshadow their other reform proposals many of which the other parties did adopt during the progressive era.
what was it composed of and when was it organized? what did it call from the national government, when did it die and why did it die. but in the future what did we gain?
Big stick diplomacy
theodore roosevelts foreign policy calling for active, aggressive US action to keep international order, thereby promoting US interests including peace, international trade, and civilization among lesser cultures, especially in teh western hemisphere. his big stick was the US navy with its new steel plated battleships.
monroe doctorine
a US policy statement issued by president monroe in 1823 which declared that latin america was no longer open to european colonization. this doctrine was used by the US at different times to support both policies of isolationism and policies of active mission. in 1823, the doctrine was primarily isolationist in tone and effect; in the 1840s and the 1890s and early 1900s it became a justification for aggressive, interventionist policies by the US as in the mexican war of the 1840s and the spanish american war of 1898 and the roosevelt corollary of 1904. the US also came to insist that the doctrine was the equivalent of international law and therefore should be recognized by all nations, a position which tended to make the western hemisphere a US sphere of influence.
manifest destiny
the concept, first popular in the 1840s, that the united states had the god given right and duty to expand across the north american continent.
white mans burden
rudyard kiplings phrase representing the idea that westerners have a duty and destiny to spread their civilizations and give the inferior peoples of the world the benefit of their government, economy, religion, culture, everything. written in 1899 in honor of the US's acquisition of the philippines, kiplings poem on the white mans burden is representative of the late 19th centurys belief in racism, social darwinism, determinism, and the necessity and goodness of empire. according to this outlook, people need to prove their verility by wars and conquest, and superior civilizations are morally remiss if they do not take colonies. these ideas were crucial justifications for imperialism int he late 19th centurey and they contributed to the suspicion, militarism, and ethnic nationalism which brought world war 1.
whose phrase was this and what did id represent? what were they crucial to and what did they contribute to?
strong, josiah
congregationalist minister who in his book, our country, combined ideas about christianity with social darwinism and the theory of evolution to provide religious and racist justifications for US expansion. strong is significant as a representative of the widespread conviction in the late 19th century and early 20th century that race and racial differences are scientific, that racial differences are one of the keys to history and society, that some races are superior to others, and that the superior races ahve a duty to spread their civilization to others.
who was he and what did he combine to justify what? What did he say about spreading civilization?
yellow press
newspapers which sensationalized the news in order to increase their circulation and manipulate public opinion. the name was derived from the first color cartoon "the yellow Kid" which accompanied and came to represent the debased editorial policy of william randolph hearsts new york journal. to gain readers and influence over public policy, hearst engaged in a circulation war with joseph pulitzers new york world. by exaggerating incidents, using scare headlines, printing lurid details of private lives, emphasizing scandals and especially using the developments in cuba prior to the spanish american war, these two papers increased their circulation and aroused public feeling against spain.
what were the 2 papers and what did they exaggerate and why did they do this?
open door policy
US china policy calling for equal trading rights for all nations in china and the territorial and administrative integrity of china as drafted by US secretary of state john hay and distributed to the other major powers in the form of two sets of diplomatic notes, one for equal trading rights in 1899 and one for the integrity of china in 1900. the laterr expansion of the policy was adopted after the chinese boxer rebellion of 1900 stimulated five powers plus the US to send an international army to china to rescue their diplomatic delegatins and restore order. this policy remained until world war 2 and put the US in position of protecting china from other powers such as russia and japan that were seeking greater control over parts of china. US resistance in 1941 brought the japanese attack on pearl harbor and world war 2.
what 2 things did this call for in china. and what position did it put the US in? and what happened?
US battleship which exploded in Havana harbor at 9:40 pm on feb 15, 1898, killing 260 officers and men. although subsequent investigations indicate that the explosion was the result of an internal problem on the ship, the "yellow press" of the day accused spain of being responsible, a sentiment which accorded with US public opinion. the incident helped to bring the spanish american war of 1898. "remember the maine" became one of the slogans of the war in the US.
what is it and when did it happen? what was said to be the 2 causes and why was it significant?
Roosevelt corollary
theodor roosevelts reinterpretation of the Monroe Doctrine to justify US intervention in Latin America and the creation of US protectorates in Cuba, Panama, the Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, and Haiti between 1903 and 1916. issued in decmeber 1904 as part of the state of the union address, the corollary argues that if other countries in the americas fail to uphold order and the standards of civilization, then the US's adherence to the Monroe Doctrine may force the US to intervene in those countries. Roosevelt wanted to prevent the european powers from having any excuse for intervening in latin america because that would threaten US interests and security. the implication of the policy was that the US, as another republic of the americas, would act, unlike european states, in the best intrests of latin america. this is an example of the not uncommon claim by the US to be acting for moral purposes when that action also serves US self interest and may seem immoral or at least uncaring, self righteous, and aggressive to other countries. that anti american feeling continues in latin america partly as a result of US intervention under the Roosevelt Corollary.