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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Nonspecific, First line defense mechanism:
innate immunity
How does innate immunity vary in reference to species?
It varies between different species, but is uniform within all members of a species.
The 4 barriers of innate immunity/defense:
the 2 components of anatomical innate immunity:
Things to remember about the skin:
2 layers:
-Epidermis -tightly packed epithelial cells w/ keratin and dead cels.
-Dermis - connective tissue; blood vessels, hair follicles, sweat.
Sebum - oil in hair follicles w/ pH=3-5; stops microorganisms.
What is Pattern Recognition?
means that a response recognizes CLASSES of molecules, not specific molecules.
What are the components of physiological innate immunity
pH - like the acidic stomach.
chemical mediators - lysozyme, interferon, and complement.
what is lysozyme?
mucosal/tear secretions that cleave bacterial cell walls.
the three chemical mediators of innate immunity
lysozyme - cleaves bacterial cell wall
interferon - generates antiviral state in virus-infected cells
complement - triggered by Ab binding to cells or other things; will help in damaging pathogen
components of the phagocytic/endocytic barrier of innate immunity
blood monocytes
tissue macrophages

-This barrier is not specific for any particular foreign substance.
why is temperature a physiological barrier of immunity?
because high temperatures inhibit growth of bacteria and viruses.
mucosa protects what tracts, and consists of what?
-GI, urogenital, digestive.
consists of:
epithelium -secretes mucous.
mucous - traps foreign particles.
cilia - propels trapped foreign partilcles out of the system before entering body.
What causes inflammatory response?
Tissue damage with or without infection.
Not necessarily skin breakage.
2 Possible results of INFLAMMATION
1. Specific immune response to invasion with adaptive immune system.

2. Simply clear invader with innate immune system.
3 major inflammatory events:
1. Vasodilation
2. Capillary permeability increase
3. Phagocyte influx from capillaries into tissue.
4 cardinal symptoms of inflammation
RED - from vasodilation
HEAT - from vasodilation
SWELL - from permeability/fluid influx PAIN - from factors/mediators released.
side effects of inflammation
tissue damage
actually healthy cells are killed by increased acid from lysozyme/pus action
what is the purpose of inflammation?
Defend the body from pathogens
Repair the body from dead pathogens by eating them up
cells responsible for humoral immunity

cells responsible for cell-mediated

Both are branches of:
humoral = B cells

cell-mediated = T cells

both branches of adaptive immunity
Why call it a pathogen?
It's bigger than the cells in the body. If its smaller, then just a molecule.
4 Attributes of Adaptive immunity
1. Specific - for antigens
2. Diverse - recognize many different antigens.
3. Self/nonself recognition
4. Memory - recognizes an Ag on second exposure
Function of MHC
to present antigen fragments
What does pleomorphic mean?
1. Each class of Tcells expresses many kinds of MHC; they are different but similar.

2. Differnet people have different genes for MHC.
4 Characteristic attributes of Adaptive immunity:
-Antigenic specificity
-Immunologic memory
-Self/nonself recognition
2 major populations of lymphocytes:
B and T cells
What types of B cells are there?
Naieve - have Ab, havent encountered Ag
Plasma cells - MEmory and effector
How does a Naieve B cell produce Plasma cells?
Binding of Ag to its membrane Antibody causes division/differentiation into Effector Plasma cells and Memory cells.
What has a longer life, Plasma or Memory B cells?
Memory; plasma only circulate a few days
What cells express Class 2 MHC?
What express MHC class 1
all nucleated cells
What causes a Th cell to secrete cytokines?
Interaction with its specific antigen, presented by APC on Class 2 MHC.
What are Antigen Presenting Cells?
-B lymphocytes
-Dendritic cells
What distinguishes APCs?
-Class 2 MHC
-Able to send co-stimulatory signal for Th cell activation.
Which class of MHC presents
-exogenous antigen
-endogenous antigen
Exo = MHC II

Endo = MHC 1
Does a T/B cell become Ag specific before or after initial Ag interaction?
BEFORE. DUring maturation in bone marrow or thymus.
Put in this question:
What came first the chicken or the egg?

What came first, the Antigen or the Antigen receptor?
The antigen receptor - determines the clone's specificity.
What is the Clonal Selection Process?
1. Ag selects the mature T/B cells that are specific for that Ag's epitopes, activates it.

2. Expansion of population of cells with same specificity of initally activated cell.
3 Differences btwn an Adaptive and an Innate immune response:
1. Response time: Innate takes hours, Adptv takes days

2. Specifity: Inate is limited,fixed; Adpv is highly diverse and improves through immune response.

3. Response to Repeat Infection: Innate is identical to 1st; Adpt is much more rapid
What organisms have Adaptive immuity?
What organisms have innate immunity?
ALL organisms