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92 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Chemistry is the study of ______ and the changes that it undergoes
______ is anything that has mass and taks up space.
Each _______ is made up of the same kind of atom.
A ________ is made up of two or more different kinds of elements.
The three states of matter are _____, ______, and ___.
solid, liquid, gas
A ___________ mixture is not uniform throughout.
An example of a ________ property is its boiling point.
________ properties can only be observed when a substance is changed into another substance.
The SI units of temperature are expressed in degrees ______.
The term __________ ______ refers to digits that were actually measured.
Significant digits
The smallest particle of matter is the ____.
Atoms are neither _______ nor _________ in chemical reactions.
created destroyed
_________ are formed when atoms of more than one element combine.
The elemental ___________ of a pure substance never varies.
The law of concervation of mass states that the mass of substance present at the end of a chemical process is _____ to the mass of subtances present before the reaction took place.
The charge on an electron is a ________ ___.
negative one
The charge on a proton is a ________ ___
positive one
A _______ has a mass of one amu and is neutral
_____________ is the spontaneous emission of radiation by an atom
Protons and neutrons are located in the _______ of an atom.
The mass of an atom is calculated by adding thenumber of _______ to the number of ________.
protons, neutrons
12/6 C, the 6 in the symbol represents the ____ ______
atomic number
Atoms of the same element with different masses are called ________ and only differ by the number of ________
isotopes, neutrons
The ________ ______ is a systematic catalog of the elements which are arranged in the order of their ______ ________
periodic table, atomic numbers
_________ formulas give the lowest whole-number ratio of atoms of each element in a compound while _________ formulas give the exact number of atoms of each element in a compound.
Empirical, molecular
Name two different types of reactions.
combustion reaction, decomposition reaction
The sum of the atomic weights of the atoms in a molecule is called the ________ ______.
molecular weight
C6H12o6 = . CO2 =6 H20. The underlined 6 is called the ___________.
The units of molar mass are _____ ____.
grams per mole
What is the definition of energy?
The capacity to do work or produce heat.
When energy is used to cause an object that has mass to move, it is called ____.
What is the definition of heat?
The energy used to cause the temperature of an object to increase.
Distinguish between PE and KE.
PE is inergy of position, KE is energy of movement
The formula for KE is
The SI unit of energy is the _____.
One J is equal to
An older non-SI unit still used is the _______, which is equal to _____J.
calorie, 4.184J
The formula for work is ________explain each symbol.
Heat flows from ____ objects to ____ objects.
warm cold
What is the first law of thermodynamics?
Energy cannot be created nor destroyed.
The ________ ______ of a system is the sum of all kinetic and potentiol energies of all components of the system. Its symbol is _____.
internal energy, E
When heat is absorbed by the system from the surroundings the process is __________.
When heat is released by the system to the surroundings the process is __________.
The internal energy of a system is independent of the path by which the system achieved that state, it is therefore known as a _____ ________.
state function
The thing that students hate to do is called ____. It can be expressed in terms of pressure and volume by the equation ________
If a reaction is exothermic, its Delta H is always ________.
If a reaction is endothermic, the Delta H is always ________.
The experimental science for measuring the flow of heat is known as ___________.
The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a substance by 1K is its ____ ________.
heat capacity
_______ law states that as a reaction is carried out in a series of steps, delta H for the overall reaction will be equal to the sum of the enthalpy changs for the individual steps.
Standard enthalpies of fomation delta Hf are measured under standard conditions which are _____ degrees and ______ pressure.
298K 25C, atmospheric 1STM
Name three different types of reactions.
combustion, neutralization, decomposition
The sum of the atomic weights of the atoms in a molecule is called the _________ ______.
molecular weight
In a chemical reaction, if there is more of one reactant than is necessary, that reactant is said to be __ ______. The other reactant is known as the _________ _______ and is used in all molar calculations.
in excess, limiting reagent
Solutions are ____________ mixtures of two or more pure substances.
the dissolving medium is called the ________ while the cvhamical dissolved is known as the ______.
solvent, solute
____________ occurs when an ionic substance dissolves in water.
Give five examples of strong acids.
Give four examples of strong bases.
LiOH, NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)2
If ions are mixed and react to form an insoluble species, that compound is called a ___________.
Metathesis is simply an ________ reaction.
In an ionic reaction equation the things that don't change are called the _________ ____.
spectator ions
Both definitions of acis involve the ______ _____ or _______.
proton donor H+ ion
Substances that increase the concentration of OH ions are called _____.
The products of the reaction of an acid and a base are always a ____ and _____.
salt, water.
Oxidation is when an atom or ion _____ electrons while recuction is when an atom or ion _____ electrons.
loses, gains
The oxidation state of an element from the periodic table is always ____.
The sum of the oxidation numbers in a neutral compound is equal to ____.
Write the equation for molarity.
M= moles of solvent
volume of solution in liters
Two important properties of waves are their __________ and ________ (words and symbols).
wavelength , frequency
The equation for the speed of light is _____________--which is equal to _________
c=wavelength*frequency, c=hv, 3.00*10/8 m/s
Waves do not explain all the properties of light and Max Planck explained this by assuming that energy comes in ______ called ______.
packets quanta
Einstein concluded that energy is proportional to ________, the equation being E=hv.
h is equal to _______ constant which numerically is _________.
s, 6.63*10-34J-s
Neils Bohr is credited with the theory of ______ ________.
atomic orbitals
Energy is only absorbed or emitted in such a way as to move an electron from one allowed energy state to another, the energy is difined by _________ (equation)
de Broglie demonstrated that the relationship between mass and wavelength was ____________(equation).
wavelength=h/ mv
Erwin Schrodinger developed a mathematical treatment that took into account both the wave and particle nature of matter which became known as_______ _________.
quantum mechanics
An orbital is decribed by a set of quantum numbers. Theste quantum numbers are the ______ _______ _____ abbv. _, the _________ _______ ______ abb, L, the ________ _______ ______ abbv __, and finally the ____ _______ ______ abbv. __
principal quantum number, n
azimutal quantum number, l
magnetic quantum number, ml
spin quantum number, ms
For a one electron hydrogen atom, orbitals on the same energy level have the same energy, that is , they are, _________.
No two electrons in the same atom can have exactly the same energy, this is known as the_____ _________ _________.
Pauli exclusion principle
4p5: 4 stands for the ___________, p stands for the _______ and 5 stands for the _________.
energy level, orbital, number of electrons in orbital
For degenerate orbitals, the lowest energy is attained when the number of electrons with the same spin is _________. This is known as ______ ____.
maximized, Hundt's rule
I have told you that I will never give you any exceptions to the rule which your book calls_________.
Dmitri Mendeleev and Lathar Meyer were both given credit for creating the ________ _____.
periodic table
Three trends that can be observed using the table are _____ __ _____ ___ ____, _________ _____, _______ ________.
sizes of atoms and ions, ionization energy, electron affinity
The nuclear charge that an electron experiances depends on the following two factors:
Electrons are both attracted by the nucleus and repelled by other electrons.
The effective nuclear charge Zeff is equal to Z-S, where Z is the _____ ______ and S is a ________ _______.
atomic number, screening constant.
The bonding atomic radius is defined as ____ of the distance between __________ bonded nuclei.
half, covalently
Cations are _______ than their parent atoms because the outermost electron is ________ and __________ are reduced.
smaller, removed, repulsions
Anions are ______ than their parent atom because electrons are _____ and __________ are increased.
larger, added, repulsions
What is the definition of ionization energy?
The energy required to remove an electron from the ground state of a gaseous atom.