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43 Cards in this Set

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What are three major roles of psychologists?
teacher, scientist, and clinical practitioner
What degree do most psychologists have and what level of schooling is needed?
Most have a doctorate (Ph.D.(doctor of philosophy)or a Psy.D.(doctor of psychology). Both take about 4-5 years beyond a bachelor's degree.
Define structuralism.
Wilhelm Wundt's approach which focuses on the fundamental elements that form the foundation of thinking, conciousness, emotions, and other kinds of mental states and activities.
Define introspection.
a procedure used to study the structure of the mind in which subjects are asked to describe what they are experiencing in response to a stimulus-not scientific
Define functionalism.
an early approach to psychology that focused on what the mind does-and the role of behavior in allowing people to adapt to environment
What is the Gestalt psychology?
An approach to psychology that focuses on the organization of perception and thinking in a whole sense rather than on the individual elements of perception
What are the five major perspectives of psychology?
1. Neuroscience
2. Psychodynamic
3. Behavioral
4. Cognitive
5. Humanistic
What is the neuroscience perspective?
the approach that views behavior from the perspective of the brain, the nervous system, and other biological functions
What is the psychodynamic perspective?
The approach based on the belief that behavior is motivated by the unconcious inner forces over which the individual has little control
What is the behavioral perspective?
The approach that suggests that observable behavior should be the focus of study
What is the cognitve perspective?
The approach that focuses on how people think, understand and know about the world
What is the humanistic perspective?
suggests that all individuals naturally strive to grow, develop, and be in control of their lives and behavior
Explain the difference between free will and determinism.
Free will is the ability to freely make decisions about one's own behavior and life. Determinism sees behsvior as beyond the person's control
What is information processing?
how information is inputted, transformed, stored and retrieved
What are the five major issues in psychology?
1. nature vs. nurture
2. concious vs. unconscious dterminants of behavior
3. observable behavior vs. internal mental processes
4. free will vs. determinism
5. individual differences vs. universal principles
What is operationalization?
the process of translating a hypothesis into specific, testable procedures that can be measured and observed
What is correlational research?
Research in which the relationship between two sets of variables is examined to determine whether they are associated, or "correlated"
What is a variable?
Behviors, events, or other characteristics that can change, or vary, in some way.
Explain a positive correlation.
indicates that as the value of one variable increases, we can predict that the value of the other variable will increase
Explain a negative correlation.
as the value of one variable increases, the value of the other decreases
Experimental manipulation
The change that an experimenter deliberately produces in a situation
Treatment
The manipulation implemented by the experimenter
Experimental group
Any group participating in an experiment that receives treatment
Control group
a group participating in an experiment that receives no treatment
Random assignment to condition
a procedure in which participants are assigned to different experimental groups or "conditions" on the basis of chance and chance alone
Significant outcome
Meaningful results that make it possible for researchers to feel confident that they have confirmed their hypotheses
Name 4 guidelines by the APA (American Psychological Association) aimed at protecting participants in research.
1 protection from physical and mental harm
2 right to privacy regarding behavior
3 assurance that participation is voluntary
4 necessity of informing participants of nature of procedures
What is informed consent?
a document signed by participants affirming that they have been told the basic outlines of the study and are aware of what their participation will involve
Experimental bias
factors that distort how the independent variable affects the dependent variable in an experiment
Placebo
a false treatment, such as a pill, "drug", or other substance, without any significant chemical properties or active ingredient
What do Empiricists believe?
all ideas are based on experience, Our knowledge is based on ideas, Sensations and reflections are the basis of our experiences.
Name 2 Empiricists
John Locke (1632-1704)
and G. Berkeley (1685-1753)
Who started the first laboratory in psychology?
1875 William James Functionalist(1842-1910)
What did Wilhelm Wundt believe?
Psychology was the study of conciousness Structuralist
Discuss the beliefs of Aristotle
Born 384 B.C. he believed there was a relationship between the mind and body; but thought the brain was a radiator for the body to cool it down by pushing water throughout,felt goal of life was happiness
Discuss what Decarte believed
French philosopher believed that the mind and body interracted, believed in laws of motion and matter, reflex/stimulus, brain used to inflate the body, soul is not mind
Name 3 behaviorists
Ivan Pavlov, John B. Watson, B. F. Skinner
Name 3 humanists
Rogers, Maslov, May-believed humans are innately successful and healthy, believed in free will and ability to control own destiny
Define mean
average; takes in all factors
median
middle
validity
test tests what the test will test
reliability
consistency; should not see much change
Rosenthal Effect
Tested students and reversed scores/informed teachers/ higher grades went to dull students