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28 Cards in this Set

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The three types of tissues that make up the skeletal system are:
1) bone

2) cartilage (covers most joint surfaces)

3) fibrous connective tissue (forms ligaments that connect bones - can be part of joint structure)
How many bones are in the human skeleton?
206
The human skeleton is in two divisions: the 1)_____ skeleton and the 2)_____ skeleton.
1) axial

2) appendicular
The _____ skeleton consists of the skull, vertebral column, and ribcage; all are flat or irregular bones and contain red bone marrow.
axial
The _____ skeleton consists of the bones of the arms and leggs and the shoulder and pelvic girdles, by which the extremities are attached.
appendicular
Which of the following is the function of synovial fluid in joints?
a. Exchange nutrients
b. Prevent friction
c. Absorb water
d. Wear away rough surfaces
b. Prevent friction
Which of the following assessments is included in neurovascular checks of the lower extremities?
a. Radial pulses
b. Checking for clubbing
c. Femoral pulses
d. Biceps reflex
c. Femoral pulses
A patient has undergone an arthroscopy. Two hours after the procedure his pedal pulses are diminished from the previous assessment. What should the nurse do?
a. Take his vital signs
b. Notify the physician.
c. Perform a neurovascular assessment.
d. Change the dressing and rewrap the elastic wrap.
c. Perform a neurovascular assessment.
A patient has been diagnosed with a musculoskeletal disease that causes decreased bone density. Which assessment question is most appropriate by the nurse?
a. "Do you have any broken bones?"
b. "Has your doctor informed you to not exercise in case you break a bone?"
c. "What forms of physical activity are you able to participate in?"
d. "Do any of your spouse's relatives have problems with their bones?"
c. "What forms of physical activity are you able to participate in?"
A patient is scheduled for an MRI of his pelvis. Which of the following would the nurse do if during data collection the nurse found out that he had had a previous heart surgery?
a. Ask the patient if he has any metal in his body.
b. Order a chest x-ray exam to identify if he has any metal objects in his body.
c. Cancel the MRI.
d. Inform the physician.
a. Ask the patient if he has any metal in his body.
The amount of calcium in bones depends on several factors including . . . (3 factors)
~ nutrition
~ age
~ gender

(N.A.G.)
Three areas of musculoskeletal assessment are important . . .
1) inspection

2) palpation

3) range of motion (ROM)
crepitation
grating sound heard as joint or bone moves
synovitis
swollen synovial tissue within a joint
Bone disorders commonly cause changes in 1_____ and 2_____ levels.
1) calcium

2) phosphorus (or phosphate)
Serum calcium tends to decrease in patients with 1_____ or in people who consume inadequate amounts of 2_____ in their diets. Serum calcium levels increase in patients with 3_____ _____, particularly when 4_____.
1) osteoporosis

2) calcium

3) bone cancer

4) metastatic
What enzyme increases when bone or liver tissue is damaged?
alkaline phosphatase (ALP)
When muscle tissue is damaged, a number of serum enzymes are released into the bloodstream, including . . . (4 listed)
1) skeletal muscle creatine kinase (CK-MM [CK3])

2) aldolase (ALD)

3) aspartate aminotransferase (AST)

4) lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
The _____ and the _____ are the most common joints tested using arthrography.
a. knee, shoulder
b. knee, elbow
c. shoulder, wrist
d. shoulder, ankle
a. knee, shoulder
During a _____, a contrast medium is injected into the subarachnoid space so that the spine and spinal cord can be visualized for disk herniation or other abnormalities.
myelogram
What is the most accurate test used to diagnose many problems of the vertebral column?
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
An 1_____ is a tubular instrument that allows the surgeon to directly visualize a 2_____. The surgeon makes several small incisions and distends the joint with injected 3_____.
1) arthroscope

2) joint

3) saline
PACU stands for . . .
postanesthesia care unit
The two techniques used to retrieve muscle tissue during a biopsy include . . .
1) a needle (closed) biopsy

2) an incisional (open) biopsy
Bone or muscle tissue can be surgically extracted for microscopic examination to confirm cancer, infection, inflammation, or damage. These procedures are called . . .
bone or muscle biopsy
The biopsy site of the patient's body should not be moved for _____ to _____ hours to prevent bleeding.
8 to 12 hours
The nurse inspects the biopsy site for 1_____, 2_____, and 3_____ _____. Increased pain that is unresponsive to analgesic medication may indicate 4_____ in the soft tissue.
1) bleeding

2) swelling

3) hematoma formation

4) bleeding
A neurovascular assessment should include what seven categories?
1) color

2) temperature

3) pain

4) movement

5) sensation

6) pulses

7) capillary refill