Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
inflammation of the urethra

may be due to
-chemical irritant
-bacterial infection
-sexually transmitted

S/S: urinary frequency/urgency - dysuria - male pt may have discharge
inflammation & infection of bladder wall

S/S: dysuria - frequency - urgency - cloudy urine
infection of kidneys

includes formation of abscesses throughout kidney & enlargement of kidney

S/S: urgency - frequency - dysuria - flank pain - fever - chills - cloudy urine
septicemea (blood infection) resulting from urinary issue
surgical repair of urethra
scope is inserted through skin into kidney to aid in breaking up renal calculi

also irrigates renal pelvis
results from untreated obstruction in urinary tract

urine backs up & distends ureters then progresses to kidneys

S/S: same as UTI - flank & back pain - symptoms of renal failure
decreased urine output
no urine output
tiny tubes placed inside ureters to hold them open
nephrostomy tube
exits through incision in flank area

allows urine to drain into collecting bag

function of kidney can be maintained
damage to small blood vessels in kidneys

most common cause of renal failure

long-term complication of diabetes mellitus
surgical kidney removal

includes adrenal gland & surrounding structures (fascia, fat, lymph nodes)

treatment for cancer of kidney
renal arteriosclerosis w/thickening & hardening of renal blood vessels

results in decreased ischemia of kidney

caused by hypertension
inflammation occurs due to deposit of antigen-antibody complexes in basement membrane of glomerulus

also occurs from antibodies that specifically attack the beasement membrane

inflammation in glomerulus -> glomerulus becomes more porous -> allows proteins/WBCs/RBCs to leak into urine
substances that are harmful to kidneys
production of large amount of dilute urine
increase in serum urea level (BUN)

often raises creatinine levels as well

caused by kidneys being unable to remove waste products of metabolism
A pt is admitted to the nursing unit w/a diagnosis of UTI. When teaching the pt about prevening UTIs, which of the following information is most important for the nurse to include?
a. Void frequently & after sexual intercourse
b. Drink large amounts of citrus juices
c. Eat large amount of vegetables
d. Wash the perineum every 8 hours
a. Void frequently & after sexual intercourse
A pt has an ileal conduit for treatment of his cancer. While changing the pouch at the stoma site, the nurse notes that the stoma is constantly spilling urine. Which of the following actions should the nurse take?
a. Notify the physician of the constant spillage
b. Continue changing the pouch
c. Remove the overglow of urine w/a straight catheter
d. Irrigate the stoma w/a sterile solution of normal saline
b. Continue changing the pouch
A pt has a graft inserted into his left arm to provide a blood access for hemodialysis treatments. Which of the following interventions should the nurse do to determine patency of the graft?
a. Observe the tubing for bright red blood
b. Feel for a brachial pulse on both arms
c. Feel for a thrill over the graft
d. Assess blood pressure in the affected arm
b. Feel for a brachial pulse on both arms
A pt w/renal failure who is on hemodialysis asks for a snack in the afternoon. His potassium level remains high. Which of the following foods would be contraindicated?
a. Banana
b. Gelatin desert
c. Clear carbonated beverage
d. Cranberry juice
a. Banana
The nurse is caring for a pt w/glomerulonephritis. Which of the following interventions would the nurse recommend be included in the pt's plan of care?
a. Increase fluid intake
b. Decrease sodium intake
c. Increase potassium intake
d. Decrease carbohydrate intake
b. Decrease sodium intake
urinary tract infection (UTI)
invasion of urinary tract by bacteria

risk factors: stasis of urine - contamination (usually by E. coli) - instrumentation - reflux of urine - previous UTIs

S/S: dysuria - urgency - cloudy, foul smelling urine, frequency
urethral stricture
narrowing of lumen of urethra caused by scar tissue

common cause is injury due to insertion of catheters or surgical instruments

S/S: diminished urinary stream - prone to develop UTIs
renal calculi
kidney stones

hard, generally small stones that form somewhere in renal structures

formed when urinary salts are concentrated enough to settle out

causes include family hx - chronic dehydration - infection - dietary factors - immobility

S/S: flank pain - renal colic - hematuria - dysuria - frequency - urgency - enuresis

*pt can urinate stone 5mm or smaller
cancer of the bladder
often starts as benign growth on bladder wall

S/S: painless hematuria - bladder irritability - urinary retention - fistula formation -
cancer of the kidney
risk factors include smoking & industrial pollution exposure

S/S: hematuria - dull pain in flank area - mass in area
nephrotic syndrome
large amounts of protein are lost in urine from increased glomerular membrane permeability

results in decreased serum albumin & total serum protein

Causes: glomerulonephritis - diabetes - lupus - infections - cancer - drugs
Signs and symptoms of glomerulonephritis include:
(five listed)
1 oliguria
2 hypertension
3 electrolyte imbalance
4 edema
5 flank pain
acute renal failure (ARF)
sudden loss of kidney function

waste products accumulate in blood

Causes: prerenal failure - intrarenal failure - postrenal failure
prerenal failure
loss of kidney function associated w/decrease or interruption of blood supply to kidneys
intrarenal failure
loss of kidney function associated w/ damage to nephrons inside kidney
postrenal failure
loss of kidney function associated w/obstruction blocking flow of urine out of body
continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT)
used for treating renal failure & preventing further damage

removes fluid continuously along w/hemodialysis

alone to remove fluid/solutes in controlled, continuous manner in unstable pts

blood flows through hemofilter, excess fluids/solutes move into collection bag
method for replacing function of kidneys by circulating blood through tubes made of semipermeable membranes
execess in blood of urea, creatinine, & other nitrogenous end products of protein & amino acid metabolism
chronic renal failure (CRF)
gradual decrease in kidney function over time

renal insufficiency stage occurs when pt has lost 75% of nephron function & some signs of mild renal failure are present

end-stage renal disease (ESRD) occurs when 90% of nephrons are lost

S/S: fluid accumulation - elecrolyte imbalance - waste products retained - acid-base imbalances - anemia
What dietary recommendations are made as a method of medical management for renal failure?
(eight listed)
1 high calorie
2 low protein (unless dialysis)
3 low sodium
4 low potassium
5 increased calcium
6 low phosphorus
7 restricted fluids
8 vitamins added
What medications are used in the medical management of renal failure?
(four listed)
1 diuretics
2 antihypertensives
3 phosphate binders
4 calcium/vit D supplements
Dialysis is started when the patient develops symptoms of severe 1_____ overload, 2_____ potassium levels, 3_____, or symptoms of uremia that are life threatening.
1 fluid
2 potassium
3 acidosis
Hemodialysis involves the use of an 1_____ 1_____ to remove 2_____ 2_____ & excess 3_____ from the patient's body.
1 artificial kidney
2 waste products
3 water
What are the three methods of vascular access utilized for dialysis patients?
1 temporary
2 A-V graft
3 A-V fistula
peritoneal dialysis
provides continuous dialysis treatment performed by pt or family in the home
sterile dialyzing solution
Peritoneal dialysis uses 1_____ flowing through a tube into the 2_____ cavity, where it collects 3_____ 3_____ from the blood. Periodically the used dialysis solution is 4_____ from the abdominal cavity, carrying away 5_____ 5_____ and 6_____ 6_____ from the blood.
1 dialysate
2 abdominal
3 waste products
4 drained
5 waste products
6 excess water
A donated kidney for a kidney transplant can come from a 1_____ 1_____; a 2_____ 2_____ 2_____; or a 3_____ donor.
1 family member
2 living non-related donor
3 cadaver