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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
rhythmic contraction of muscles
bowel sounds
produced when peristalsis moves air & fluid through GI tract

categorized as
- normal
- hyperactive
- hypoactive
- absent
carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
marker used to monitor GI cancer treatment effectiveness & detect recurrence

also found in pts w/cirrhosis, hepatic disease, alcoholic pancreatitis, & heavy smokers
occult blood
blood not seen by the naked eye
excessive secretion of fecal fats
upper gastrointestinal (UGI) series
outlines contours of esophagus, stomach, duodenum, & jejunum

uses oral liquid radiopaque contrast medium (barium) and fluoroscope
lower GI series
AKA barium enema

for visualizing position, movements, & filling of colon
fluorescent screen mounted either separately or with x-ray tube

shadows of objects interposed between tube and screen are made visible
procedure using tube & endoscope (fiberoptic system) to observe inside of esophogus
procedure using tube & endoscope (fiberoptic system) to observe inside of stomach
exam of distal sigmoid colon, rectum, & anal canal using rigid or flexible endoscope
provides visualization of lining of LARGE INTESTINE to identify abnormalities through flexible endoscope inserted rectally
basal cell secretion test
part of gastric analysis

measures amount of gastric acid produced in 1 hour
gastric acid stimulation test
test measuring amount of gastric acid for 1 hour after subq injection of a drug that stimulates gastric acid secretion
feeding w/a stomach tube or w/tube passed through nares, pharynx, & esophagus into stomach

food is in liquid or semiliquid form at room temp
washing out of a cavity
surgical creation of a gastric fistula through abdominal wall
peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN)
method of supplying nutrients to pt by IV route that is not a central vein

used for <10 days when pt doesn't need >2000 calories daily
The nurse is assessing a patient's bowel sounds. The nurse understand that bowel sounds heard at an irregular rate every 5 to 15 seconds should be documented as which of the following?
a. Abnormal
b. Hyperactive
C. Hypoactive
d. Normal
d. Normal
The nurse is planning care for a 78-year-old patient's elimination needs. Which of the following interventions should the nurse plan to reduce complications from the aging change of slowed motility?
a. Decrease ambulation
b. Increase dietary fiber
c. Increase dairy products
d. Decrease fluid intake
b. Increase dietary fiber
The nurse is caring for a patient after an EGD. Which of the following would best indicate to the nurse that it is safe for the patient to resume oral intake?
a. Vital signs are within normal limits
b. Patient's gag reflex returns
c. Patient is alert
d. Patient has no nausea or vomiting
b. Patient's gag reflex returns
The nurse is caring for a patient who is receiving a TPN infusion. Blood glucose monitoring q6h is ordered to detect which of the following complications?
a. Hyponatremia
b. Hyperglycemia
c. Hypocalcemia
d. Hyperkalemia
b. Hyperglycemia
Following a colonoscopy, the nurse is assisting the patient into bed and sees bright red blood on the sheets. Which of the following should be the nurse's first action?
a. Apply gauze dressing to perineum
b. Bathe the patient
c. Assess the patient's drainage
d. Notify the physician immediately
c. Assess the patient's drainage
What are the structures of the gatsrointestinal system?
1. oral cavity

2. pharynx

3. esophagus

4. stomach

5. small intestine

6. large intestine (colon)
What are the functions of each organ of the gastrointestinal system?
oral cavity |
stomach |->digestion
small intestine |

small intestine -> absorption of nutrients

large intestine -> water reabsorbed & undigestible material eliminated
How does age affect the gastrointestinal system?
~ decreased sense of taste
~ increase in periodontal disease
~ increase in oral cancer
~ complications due to tooth loss
~ peristalsis less effective
~ indigestion more common
~ increased chance of peptic ulcer
~ diverticula possible
~ constipation & hemorrhoids more common
~ increased risk of colon cancer
How would you perform a gastrointestinal assessment on a patient with actual or potential problems of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, and intestines?
1. inspect abdomen: appearance, size, shape, skin
2. bowel sounds x4 quads
3. abdomen hard/soft? distended? pain? masses?
4. Nausea/vomiting in past 24 hrs
5. Pt's diet?
6. Can pt swallow w/o difficulty?
7. Pt's ht/wt? Any recent changes?
8. Pt's bowel patterns? Appearance? If colostomy, appearance of stoma?
9. Any meds? Any relate to GI?
10. Lab values related to pt's GI system?
The esophagus is about 1_____ inches long and carries food from the 2_____ to the 3_____. No 4_____ takes place in the esophagus.
1 10
2 pharynx
3 stomach
4 digestion
The stomach is in the 1_____ abdominal quadrant, to the left of the 2_____ and in front of the 3_____. It extends from the esophagus to the 4_____ of the small intestine.
1 left
2 liver
3 spleen
4 duodenum
The small intestine is about 1_____ inch in diameter and approximately 2_____ feet long. It extends from the stomach to the 3_____ of the colon. The 4_____ is the first 10 inches, the jejunum is the next 5_____ feet, and the 6_____ the final 11 feet.
1 one
2 20
3 cecum
4 duodenum
5 eight
6 ileum
The large intestine extends from the 1_____ to the anus. It's 2_____ feet long and about 2.5 inches in diameter. It begins with the 3_____ and appendix. Following are the 4_____, transverse, descending, and 5_____ colon. The rectum makes up the next 6 _____ inches and the 7_____ 7 _____ the last inch.
1 ileum
2 five
3 cecum
4 ascending
5 sigmoid
6 six
7 anal canal
An upper gastrointestinal series is also known as a 1_____ 1_____. It requires the pt to be NPO for 2_____ to 3_____ hours before the procedure.
1 barium swallow
2 six
3 eight
A lower gastrointestinal series is also known as a 1_____ 1_____ and is used to visualize the 2_____. The pt is on 3_____ 3_____ for two days prior and 4_____ from the night before the procedure.
1 barium enema
2 colon
3 clear liquids
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) visualizes the 1_____, the 2_____, and the 3_____. The pt is NPO for 4_____ to 5_____ hours before the procedure.
1 esophagus
2 stomach
3 duodenum
4 eight
5 twelve
The main purposes for GI intubation include:
1. decompression
2. dx GI problems & obtain secretions
3. treat obstructions/bleeding
4. gavage feeding
5. preventing distention
6. lavage/irrigation
When administering a tube feeding, a 1_____ check to see how much feeding, if any, has not been absorbed is done 2_____ when the feeding is initiated, then every 3_____ hours or before giving meds or adding more feeding. If there is more than 4_____ the feeding should be stopped & physician notified.
1 residual
2 hourly
3 four
4 100 mL
1____ 1_____ 1____ (TPN) solutions usually contain 2_____, 3_____ 3_____, vitamins, minerals, and 4_____ 4_____. TPN solutions are designed to improve the pt's 5 _____ status, achieve weight gain, & enhance the 6_____ process.
1 Total parenteral nutrition
2 dextrose
3 amino acids
4 fat emulsions
5 nutritional
5 healing

Amino acids
fat E(mulsion)'s

tpn is

Mountain dew