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41 Cards in this Set

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hematology
the study of blood and its parts, functions, and abnormalities
3 general functions of blood
1. transportation (oxygen, nutrients, & cellular waste)

2. regulation (body temp., pH, & fluid balance)

3. production (cells offering body protection)
How many liters of blood does the human body hold?
It holds between 4 and 6 L of blood.
What percentage of blood is plasma?
a) 45% - 55%
b) 55% - 60%
c) 52% - 62%
d) 42% - 52%
c) 52% - 62% of blood volume is plasma
What percentage of blood is made up of cells?
a) 38% - 48%
b) 35% - 40%
c) 45% - 55%
d) 52% - 62%
a) 38% - 48% of blood are cells
What are the three types of blood cells?
1) red blood cells (RBCs or erythrocytes)

2) white blood cells (WBCs or leukocytes)

3) platelets (thrombocytes)
Approximately what percentage of plasma is water?
a) 81%
b) 91%
c) 89%
d) 75%
b) 91% (approx.) of plasma is water
Plasma transports . . .
- nutrients
- wastes
- hormones
- antibodies
- carbon dioxide
Plasma proteins include . . .
- clotting factors
- albumin
- globulins
What is the normal pH range of blood?
a) 6.85 to 6.95
b) 7.45 to 7.55
c) 7.35 to 7.45
d) 6.95 to 7.00
c) 7.35 to 7.45 is the normal pH range for blood
Mature RBCs are biconcave disks without 1_____; they carry oxygen bonded to the 2_____ in 3_____. Oxyhemoglobin is formed in the 4____ 4_____ where the hemoglobin combines with 5_____ in the lungs. Once hemoglobin gives up its oxygen to the 6_____ of the body, it becomes 7_____ hemoglobin.
1 nuclei
2 iron
3 hemoglobin (Hgb)
4 pulmonary capillaries
5 oxygen
6 cells
7 reduced
anemia
a lack of iron, hemoglobin, or RBCs

S/S: weakness - SOB
The rate of RBC production by the 1_____ 1_____ 1_____ is most influenced by blood 2_____ level. 3_____ stimulates the 4_____ to secrete erythropoietin, which 5_____ the rate of RBC production and thus the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.
1 red bone marrow
2 oxygen
3 Hypoxia
4 kidneys
5 increases
The three types of granular WBCs are . . .
1. neutrophils

2. eosinophils

3. basophils
The two typesof agranular WBCs are . . .
1. lymphocytes

2. monocytes
Granular WBCs are produced only in the 1_____ _____ _____. Agranular WBCs are produced in both the 2_____ _____ and the 3_____ _____ _____.
1 red bone marrow
2 lymphatic tissue
3 red bone marrow
The lymphatic system consists of . . .
- lymph

- system of lymph vessels

- lymph nodes & nodules

- spleen

- thymus
The two functions of the lymph system are . . .
1. return tissue fluid to maintain blood volume

2. protect the body against pathogens and other foreign material
The three major paired groups of lymph nodes are . . .
1. cervical nodes

2. axillary nodes

3. inguinal nodes
petechiae
small purplish hemorrhagic spots under the skin
ecchymoses
larger areas of discoloration from hemorrhage under the skin
purpura
hemorrhage into the skin, mucous membranes, and organs
An inspection of physical structures most relevant to the blood and lymph systems includes . . .
1. skin

2. mucous membranes

3. fingernails

4. eyes

5. lymph nodes

6. liver

7. spleen
lymphedema
an abnormal accumulation of tissue fluid in the interstitial space (potential lymph)
prothrombin time (PT)
normal value (men and women):
9.5 - 11.8 seconds

affected by activity of clotting factors V, VII, X, prothrombin , and fibrinogen
international normalized ratio (INR)

(KNOW THIS ONE!)
normal value: (KNOW THIS ONE!)
2.0 - 3.0 seconds for pt using anticoagulants
(3.0 - 4.5 seconds for recurrent problems)

monitored w/prothrombin time for warfarin therapy
partial thromboplastin time (PTT)
normal value:
30 - 45 seconds
(1.5 - 2 X longer for pt on heparin therapy)

affected by activity of clotting factors, prothrombin, and fibrinogen
thrombin clotting time (TCT)
normal value:
10 - 15 seconds
(1.5 - 2 X longer for pt on heparin therapy)

measures time for fibrin clot to form after addition of thrombin
bleeding time
normal value:
2.5 - 9.5 minutes

measures time for small puncture wound to stop bleeding - indicates platelet function
Packed red blood cells are used for . . .
severe anemia or blood loss
Frozen red blood cells are used for . . .
autotransfusion (blood taken from pt & saved for future surgery) - prevention of febrile reactions
Platelets (given via IV) are used for . . .
bleeding caused by thrombocytopenia
Albumin (given via IV) is used for . . .
hypovolemia caused by hypoalbuminemia
Fresh frozen plasma is used for . . .
providing clotting factors for bleeding disorders - occasionally used for volume replacement
Cryoprecipitates are used for . . .
bleeding caused by specific missing clotting factors
Make sure to use only normal 1_____ solution to help dilute the blood and to flush the IV lines before and after the 2_____. Any other type of fluid or 3_____ may cause the blood product to clump, clot, or not infuse at all. Generally, 4_____ 4_____ is a good time frame to transfuse each unit of packed cells. If it must transfuse more slowly because of the pt's condition, make sure that the unit does not hang longer than 5_____ 5_____.
1 saline
2 transfusions
3 medication
4 two hours
5 four hours
Signs and symptoms of febrile reaction to a transfusion include . . .
- fever
- shaking chills
- chest pain
- headache
- hypotension
- nausea/vomiting
Signs and symptoms of a urticarial reaction to a transfusion include . . .
- hives
- fever
Signs and symptoms of a hemolytic reaction to a transfusion include . . .
- back pain
- chest pain
- chills
- fever
- SOB
- nausea/vomiting
- feeling of impending doom
- hypotension
- uncontrollable bleeding from many different sites simultaneously
Signs and symptoms of anaphylactic reaction to a transfusion include . . .
- respiratory collapse
- cardiovascular collapse
- severe GI cramping
- instant vomiting
- uncontrollable diarrhea
Signs and symptoms of circulatory overload with transfusion include . . .
- chest pain
- cough
- frothy sputum
- distended neck veins
- crackles & wheezes in lung fields
- increased heart rate