Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/40

Click to flip

40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is general undernutrition
a deficiency in calories
what is specific undernutrition
a deficiency in an essential nutrient
what is primary undernutrition
deficiency resulting from lack of food
what is secondary undernutrition
deficiency resulting from another condition
give 3 causes of undernutrition and give an example of when they might occur
1) reduced dietary intake eg famine

2) reduced absorption eg crohn's disease

3) increased demand for nutrients eg cancer, burns, pregnancy growth
give an example of mechanical undernutrition from reduced dietary intake?
oesophageal cancer
give an example of a pathological cause of increased calorie demand?
cancer, burns, infection, trauma,
what is another cause of undernutrition which does not fit into the 3 main categories?
type 1 diabetes
describe the bodies response to starvation in terms of anabolism/catabolism
1) immediately carbohydrate catabolism, uses up liver glycogen after 24 hours
2) then for a few days de novo gluconeogenesis using substrates such as amino acids, glycerol

3) then a switch to fatty acid metabolism, no more protein breakdown, ketone metabolism

4) when fat reserves run out, return to protein catabolism, rapid degeneration and death
how long does adaption to ketone metabolism take?
3 weeks
what two things prompt the switch to ketone metabolism in starvation
falling glucose and insulin levels encourage lypolysis
what are the two substrates of gluconeogenesis?
glycerol and amino acids
how does the following body system respond to starvation: immune system
decreased abiltiy to fight infection
how does the following body system respond to starvation: skeletal muscle
decreased muscle mass, decreased ability to do work
how does the following body system respond to starvation: cardiovascular system
reduced heart size, reduced blood pressure, eventually cardiac failure
how does the following body system respond to starvation: respiratory system
slow breathing, reduced lung function, eventually respiratory failure
how does the following body system respond to starvation: reproductive system
shrinking of gonads
cessation of periods in females
how does the following body system respond to starvation: digestive system
shrinking of stomach
diahroea
reduction in production of stomach acid
how does the following body system respond to starvation: metabolism
fluid accumulation on arms and legs
hypothermia
how does the following body system respond to starvation: blood
anaemia
how does the following body system respond to starvation: skin and hair
thin, inelastic skin
dry hair that falls out easily
how does the following body system respond to starvation: nervous system
apathy, irritability, mental dysfunction
what are the two types of protein energy malnutrition (PEM)
kwashikor
marasmus
what is the name for dry PEM and what causes it?
marasmus
deficiency in protein and calorie intake
what is the name for wet PEM and what causes it
kwashiokor
deficiency in protein
what symptom is found in wet PEM
oedema
explain refeeding syndrome
starvation causes a decrease in intracellular electrolytes
refeeding, and increased carbohydrate intake and circulating insulin causes an increased deman for intracellular electrolytes
this causes hypophosphataemia which causes rhabdomyolosis
this can lead to heart failure
what deficiency is found in refeeding syndrome
hypophosphataemia
what 3 things does rhabodmyolosis cause in refeeding syndrome?
cardiac failure
respiratory failure
leucocyte dysfunction
how should you refeed a starving person?
at 25% of their nutrient requirement for first few days
define dietetics
use of diet in prevention / treatment of disease
what are the basic requirements for using dietetics?
1) know normal nutritional requirements
2) know food composition
3) diagnosis underlying disorder
4) asses nutritional status
5) devise meal plan
6) monitor compliance
7) asses and adjust appropriately
what are the 5 ways of assesing nutritional status?
anthropometry
body composition
biochemistry / haemotology
function
dietary assessment
how do you asses nutritional status using anthropometry?
height, weight, girth, BMI
how do you asses nutritional status using body composition
MUAC- mid upper arm circumference
skin fold thickness
Body water % - BIA: bioelectrical impedence analysis
how do you asses nutritional status using biochemistry / haematology
check plasma protein / electrolytes
check lipids / vitamins
check for anaemia
how do you asses nutritional status using function
handgrip
standing up
wound healing
how do you asses nutritional status using dietary assessment
24 hour recalls, diaries, FFQ - food frequency questionaire
give an exammple of a secondary undernutrition condition?
short bowel syndrome
what causes short bowel syndrome? what are teh symptoms and treatment?
resection of 2/3rds of the bowel
causes malabsorption
symptoms; lethargy, diahhroea
treatment: IV nutirtion, feed with monosaccharides and amino acids