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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Main Endocrine System Functions
-Metabolism
-Control of food intake and digestion
-Tissue maturation
-Ion Regulation
-Water Balance
-Heart Rate and blood pressure recognition
-Control of blood glucose and other nutrients
-Control of reproductive functions
-Uterine contractions and milk release
-Immune system regulation
Pituitary Gland and Hypothalamus
Where nervous and endocrine systems interact
Hypothalamus regulates secretions of anterior pituitary
The Posterior Pituitary
An extension of the hypothalamus and consists of the infundibulum and the neurohypophysis
DOES NOT MAKE HORMONES
The Anterior Pituitary
Produces nine major hormones that:
Regulate body functions
Regulate the secretions of other endocrine glands
The hypothalamohypophysial portal
Connects the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary
-Neurohormones are produced in hypothalamic neurons
-The neurohormones inhibit or stimulate hormone production in the anterior pituitary
The hypothalamohypophysial tract
Connects the hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary.
-Neurohormones move down the axons of the tract and are secreted from the posterior pituitary.
Hormones of the Hypothalamus
GHRH, GHIH, TRH, CRH, GnRH, PRH, and PIH
*R=Releasing
*I=Inhibiting
Posterior Pituitary Hormones(2)
ADH and Oxytocin
Antidiuretic Hormone(ADH)
Also called vasopressin(promotes water retention by kidneys)
-High ADH=higher reabsorption of water in blood
-Stimulus of release- increase in blood concentration(detected by osmoreceptors) or decrease in blood volume(by barorecptors)
Targets the Kidneys
Oxytocin
Stimulus for release-Pressure on cervix or stretch of uterus
Target tissues-Uterus, mammary glands
Response of target tissues-Uterine contractions or release of milk
Positive response
Anterior Pituitary Hormones(9)
-Growth Hormone(GH)
-Thyroid-stimulating hormone(TSH)
-Adrenocorticotopic hormone(ACTH)
-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone(MSH)
-Beta endorphins
-Lipotropins
-Luteinizing hormone(LH)
-Follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH)
-Prolactin
Growth Hormone(GH)
sometimes called somatotropin
-GH secretion increases in response to an increase in blood amino acids, low blood glucose, or stress
-Releasing hormone-GHRH
-Inhibiting hormone-GHIH
Targets most tissues
Target tissue responses-increased protein synthesis, increased tissue growth, increased fat breakdown, increased glucose synthesis, and increased somatomedin secretion
Receptors-Membrane bound
Thyrotopin(TSH)
causes the release of thyroid hormones(T3 and T4)
Releasing hormone-TRH
No inhibiting hormones
Target tissues-Thyroid gland
Response of target tissues-Release of thyroid hormones(T3 &T4)
Receptors-Membrane bound(G protein cAMP
ACTH
Stimulates cortisol secretion from the adrenal cortex and increases skin pigmentation.
Releasing hormone-CRH
No inhibiting hormone
Target tissues Adrenal Cortex
Response of target tissues- Causes cortisol and aldosterone secretion from the adrenal cortex, binds directly to melanocytes of the skin, causes increase in the production of melanin.
Receptors-Membrane bound(G protein cAMP)
Lipotropins
Cause fat breakdown
Beta endorphins
Play a role in analgesia(inability to feel pain), released during stress
MSH
increases skin pigmentation
Gonadotropins
Glycoprotein hormones that promote growth and function of the gonads(LH, FSH, and prolactin)
Leutinizing Hormone (LH)
Releasing hormone-GnRH
No inhibiting hormones
Target tissues-ovaries or testes
Response of target tissues-Regulates production of gametes and reproductive hormones(Testosterone is males, Estrogen and Progesterone in females)
Receptors- Membrane Bound(G protein and cAMP)
Follicle Stimulating Hormone(FSH)
Releasing hormone-GnRH
No Inhibiting Hormone
Target tissues-Follicles in Ovaries or Seminiferous tubules in Testes
Target Tissue Response-Regulates production of gametes and reproductive
Hormones-Testosterone in males(sperm production), Estrogen and Progesterone in females(follicle maturation)
Receptors- Membrane bound (G protein and cAMP)
Prolactin
Releasing hormone-PRH
Inhibiting hormone- PIH
Target tissues- Ovaries and mammary glands in females
Target tissue response-Milk production, oxytocin=milk release
Receptors-Membrane bound
Thyroid Gland
Located inferior to the larynx
-Composed of follicles: follicular cells surrounding thyroglobulin/thyroid hormones
-Parafollicular cells- between follicles,secrete calcitonin
Thyroid Hormones(T3 & T4)
synthesis occurs in thyroid follicles
1. Active transport of iodide into follicular cells
2. Thyroglobulin synthesized in follicular cells from Tyrosine
3. Thyroglobulin is secreted into follicular lumen by exocytosis
4. Two iodinated tyrosine amino acids of thyroglobulin to form T3 or T4
5. T3 & T4 are stored in follicular lumen
6. Stimulation of Thyroid gland by TSH leads to endocytosis of thyroglobulin into follicle cells
7. Enzymes breakdown thyroglobulin releasing T3 & T4
8. T3 & T4 are transported in blood with TBG(thyroxine binding globulin)
Regulation of T3 & T4 Secretion
1. TRH increases from cold, food deprivation and stress
2. TRH from the hypothalamus increases TSH secretion
3. Increased TSH from the anterior pituitary increases T3 & T4 secretion.
4. T3 & T4 increase the rate of glucose, fat, and protein metabolism in many tissues, thus increasing body temperature. Normal growth of many tissues is dependent on T3 & T4.
5. T3 & T4 bind with nuclear receptor molecules and initiate new protein synthesis.
6. T3 & T4 inhibit TSH and TRH
Calcitonin
-Produced by parafollicular cells
-Secretion triggered by HIGH calcium concentration in blood.
-Calcitonin decreases calcium concentration by inhibiting osteoclasts
-Primary target tissue-bone; decrease osteoclast activity, lengthens lifespan of osteoblasts
Parathyroid Glands
Embedded in the thyroid gland
Parathyroid Hormone(PTH)
Stimulated by a decrease in blood calcium.
Increases blood calcium levels:
-PTH stimulates osteoclasts
-PTH promotes calcium reabsorption by the kidneys and the formation of active vitamin D by the kidneys
-Active vitamin D increases calcium absorption by the intestine.
Target areas- kidneys, intestines, bones
Adrenal Glands
Near the superior poles of the kidneys
The Adrenal Medulla
Composed of closely packed cells
The Adrenal Cortex(3 layers)
Zona Glomerulosa
Zona Fasciculata
Zona Reticularis
Hormones of the Adrenal Medulla
Prepare the body for physical activity.
80% Epinephrine and 20% Norepinephrine
Stimulated by the sympathetic division in response to emotions, injury, stress, exercise and low blood glucose levels
Effects of Epinephrine and Norepinephrine(7)
-Increased release of glucose from liver
-Increased fat release
-Increased heart rate
-Increased constriction of blood vessels in skin and vasodilation in skeletal and cardiac muscles
-Increased BP
-Decreased digestive functions
The Zona Glomerulosa
Secretes Mineralocorticoids, or aldosterone
Aldosterone
Acts on the kidneys to increase blood levels of sodium by increasing sodium reabsorption and decreases blood levels of potassium and hydrogen levels by increasing K+ and H+ ion secretion.
The Zona Fasciculata
Secretes glucocorticoids, or cortisol
Cortisol
-Low blood sugar levels or stress stimulate CRH secretion
-CRH stimulates anterior pituitary to release ACTH
-ACTH releases cortisol
Once cortisol levels are optimal it inhibits CRH and ACTH
Cortisol Effects
-Increases fat and protein breakdown
-Increase glucose synthesis from amino acids
-Decreases the inflammatory response
The Zona Reticularis
Secretes androgens. In females androgens stimulate axillary and pubic hair growth and sex drive.
Pancreas
Located along the small intestine and stomach
Both an exocrine and endocrine gland
Pancreas(exocrine portion)
Consists of a complex duct system ending in small sacs called acini(grape-like) that produce pancreatic digestive juices.
Pancreas(endocrine)
Consists of pancreatic islets. Each islet is composed of:
-alpha cells, which secrete glucagon
-beta cells, which secrete insulin
-delta cells, which secrete somatostatin
Insulin
target tissues are the liver, adipose tissue, muscle, and hunger sensation in the hypothalamus
-insulin increases uptake of glucose and amino acids by cells
Glucose
Is used for energy or stored as glycogen
-Amino acids are used for energy or are converted to glucose or proteins
Glucagon("Glucose-gone")
Target tissue is mainly the liver
-causes breakdown of glycogen and fats for use as an energy source
Insulin Secretion
Increases because of
-elevated blood glucose levels
-an increase in some amino acids
-parasympathetic stimulation, and gastrointestinal hormones

Sympathetic stimulation decreases insulin secretion
Glucagon Secretion is stimulated by
-Low blood glucose levels
-certain amino acids
-sympathetic stimulation
Somatostatin
Inhibits insulin and glucagon secretion
Immediately after a meal
-High glucose levels inhibit glucagon, cortisol, GH, and epinephrine, reducing the release of glucose from tissues.
-Insulin secretion increases, increasing the uptake of glucose, amino acids, and fats are used for energy or stored
Many hours after a meal
1. Blood glucose levels decrease
2. Glucagon, GH, cortisol and epinephrine levels increase
3. Insulin decreases, glucose is released from tissues
4. Adipose tissue releases fatty acids, triglycerides and ketones, for energy
During Short Term Exercise
Short term:
-Increased Sympathetic stimulation
-Increased E and Glucagon
-Decreased Insulin
-Glycogen is broken down and glucose released
-Increased breakdown of fat
Prolonged Exercise(2 hours or more)
-ACTH, Cortisol, and GH released
-Increased protein breakdown in muscle
-Increased breakdown of fat
Testosterone(Male)
-Released from interstitial cells of testes
-Targets most cells
-Response- secondary sexual characteristics and sperm production
Inhibin(Male)
-Released from sertoli cells of testes
-Targets anterior pituitary
-Inhibits release of FSH
Estrogen(Female)
-Released form ovaries
-Target most cells
-Secondary sexual charateristics
Erysipelas (St. Anthony's fire)
1. Cause
2. Description
3. MC locations
4. tx
Erysipelas (St. Anthony's fire)
1. GABHS
2. unilateral, erythematous patch, sharply demarcated, hot; HALLMARK = raised border & peau d'organge
3. face, scalp, legs, abdomen, lymphangitis
4. PO/parenteral PCN, macrolides
Inhibin(Female)
-Released from ovaries
-Targets anterior pituitary
-Inhibits release of FSH
Relaxin(Female)
-Released from ovaries
-Targets connective tissue cells
-Increase flexibility of connective tissue in pelvis
Melatonin
-Released from Pineal Gland
-Targets the hypothalamus
-Inhibits GnRH
-lights inhibit melatonin
Thymosin
-targets the immune tissue(lymphocytes) and is involved in the development of the immune system